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Atoms and Elements
· The nucleus contains protons and neutrons in the middle of the atom.
Has a positive charge overall
· Protons Mass= 1, Charge= +1
· Neutrons Mass=1, Charge= 0
· Electrons Mass= 1/2000, Charge= -1
· Atoms have no charge overall.
· Number of protons in an atom = number of electrons
· If some are removed, it becomes charged and is an ion
· If a substance only contains one type of atom, it is an element. There are
about 100 different elements…read more

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The Periodic Table and Electron Shells
· Atoms can be represented by a 1 or 2 letter symbol
· Examples: number of protons and neutrons
C ­ Carbon
Mg ­ Magnesium number of protons
Na ­ Sodium
· The periodic table puts elements with similar properties together-
Groups. Those in the same group have the same number of electrons in
their outer shell
· Group 0 are noble gases because their outer shells are full- stable and
unreactive
· First shell can only contain 2 electrons, 2nd- 8 electrons, 3rd- 8 electrons
· If their outer shell is not full, they want to react to fill the space…read more

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Compounds
· When different elements react and form chemical bonds with other atoms
· They're difficult to separate
· Metal and non-metal compound consists of ions. The metal atoms lose
electrons to become positively charged and the non-metal atoms gain
electrons to become negatively charged. The opposite charges of the ions
mean they're attracted to each other- IONIC BONDING
· A compound formed from non-metals consists of molecules. Each atom
shares an electron with another atom, enough to fill their outer shells-
COVALENT BONDING
· The properties of compounds are different from the properties of the
original elements…read more

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Ionic Bonding Example
· Magnesium has 2 electrons in its outer shell
· Oxygen has 6 electrons in its outer shell
· The metal (magnesium) loses 2 electrons so its
outer shell is full. It become a positively
charged ion (2+)
· The non-metal (oxygen) gains 2 electrons so its
outer shell is full. It becomes a negatively
charged ion (2-)…read more

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Covalent Bonding Example
· Oxygen and Hydrogen are both non-metals
· Oxygen has 6 electrons in its outer shell
· Hydrogen has 1 electron in its outer shell
· The hydrogen atoms share one electron each from
the oxygen atom
· This means, both the oxygen and hydrogen atoms
now have full outer shells and are stable
· This is a water molecule…read more

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