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C1.1 FUNDAMENTAL IDEAS IN CHEMISTRY
Atoms and elements are the building blocks of
chemistry. An atom contains protons, neutrons and
electrons. Elements are made up of one kind of atom.
Elements produce compounds when they are reacted
together. The atomic number is the
Electrons occupy specific number of protons in the
Everything is made shells or energy levels. nucleus and is the same number
from atoms. Protons Atoms with full outer of electrons in an atom. The
and neutrons are electron shells (group 0) mass number of an element is
found in a central are stable the number of protons +
nucleus and electrons neutrons.
in shells around the Metals in non-metal compounds have
nucleus ions which are held together by ionic
bonds. Compounds that are non-
metals have compounds which consist
of molecules with covalent bonds…read more

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C1.2 LIMESTONE AND BUILDING
MATERIALS
Rocks provide materials essential for building.
Limestone is a building resource which occurs
naturally and provides a starting point for the
manufacture of cement and concrete.
Limestone is calcium carbonate Carbonates and acids react to Limestone is quarried to be
(CaCO produce carbon dioxide, a salt used in cement, mortar,
and water. This is why glass and concrete. This
limestone is damaged by acid quarrying has social,
rain environmental and
economical effects.…read more

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C1.3 METALS AND THEIR USES
Metals are very useful materials which we use in everyday life. Ores are
naturally occurring rocks which provide an economic starting point for
the creation of metals. Iron ore is used to make both iron and steel.
Copper is an easily extracted metal, however copper-rich ores are
becoming scarce leading to the development of new extraction
methods. Both aluminium and titanium are useful metals but are
expensive to produce. The mixing of metals produces alloys.
Copper ores have been Transition metals have uses
Metals more reactive than extracted so often that the based on their properties. Pure
Carbon are extracted through remaining ores are of low metals may be improved by
electrolysis. Metals less reactive quality. New extraction mixing them with others
than carbon are extracted by methods such as (making alloys)
heating them with carbon phytomining and bioleaching
(displacement) are used to extract copper Ores are the rocks that metals
compounds for ores are extracted from. Ores
contain large amounts of a
particular metal's compounds.…read more

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C1.4 CRUDE OIL AND FUELS
Crude oil comes from Biomass found in rocks. Crude oil can
produce many useful materials. It can be fractionally
distilled to produce different fuels. Biofuels are produced
from plant materials, but there are both advantages and
disadvantages to using them as fuels. Fuels are produced
form both renewable and non-renewable resources.
The majority of
Burning hydrocarbon fuels
Crude oil is comprised of compounds are alkanes
produce carbon dioxide (CO
hydrocarbon molecules. They (CnH n+
can be separated through
fractional distillation
Biofuels (e.g. biodiesel, ethanol)
are made from plants. Their
production has economical,
ethical and environmental
issues.…read more

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C1.5 OTHER USEFUL SUBSTANCES FROM
CRUDE OIL
When crude oil is distilled, the fractions may be cracked to
form smaller molecules including unsaturated hydrocarbons
(general formula : CnH2n) such as ethene (C2H4). Polymers are
made from unsaturated hydrocarbons. Ethene may be used
to make ethanol, which can also be made through
distillation.
Hydrocarbons may be cracked Ethanol may be produced by Many polymers can't be broken
to produce smaller molecules reacting ethene with steam down by microbes which has
which are more useful or by fermentation environmental repercussions
Alkenes are unsaturated Alkenes may be used to make
molecules which have double polymers (e.g. Poly(ethene) and
bonds (shown as C=C) poly(propylene)…read more

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