Chemical Analysis (identifying ions) - GCSE chemistry unit 3

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Chemical analysis
How to Identify Metal ions
1) Flame test
Lithium: crimson red
Sodium: yellow/orange
Potassium: lilac
Calcium: brick red
Barium: green
2) Adding Sodium hydroxide
Calcium: white
Copper: blue
Iron (ll): sludgy green
Iron (lll): Reddish brown
Aluminium: white
Magnesium: white
3) Dissolving in excess sodium hydroxide (to distinguish al from other white precipitates)
Aluminium dissolves in excess sodium hydroxide
Calcium and magnesium do NOT dissolve in excess sodium hydroxide
4) To distinguish copper and zinc carbonate
copper carbonate (green powder) + heat --> copper oxide (black powder) + CO2
zinc carbonate (white powder) + heat --> hot zinc oxide (yellow) then to (white) when cooled
To find nitrates
5) Ammonia is formed (reduction reaction)
Add sodium hydroxide
Test with litmus paper (goes blue)
Add aluminium powder
Test again (goes blue)
Halide ions
6) Adding dilute nitric acid and silver nitrate
Silver chloride: white

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Chemical analysis
Silver bromide: cream
Silver iodide: yellow
Sulphate ions
7) White precipitate
dissolve in hydrochloric acid
add Barium Chloride
a white precipitate forms
Test for saturated bonds
8) Add bromine water
Unsaturated ­ water decolourises
Saturated: Colour will stay brown
Test for water
9) Anhydrous cobalt chloride paper
Turns blue to pink if water is present
Test for Carbon Dioxide
10) Bubble gas through limewater
-limewater goes cloudy…read more


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