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Characteristics and causes of urban decline

Urban deprivation
Inequalities occur in all urban areas ­ there are enormous contrasts in wealth over small areas.
The wealthy and the poor seem to concentrate spatially ­ a form of social segregation. There are a
number of reasons for this:
Housing: developers, builders…

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Percentage of single parents
Percentage of lone pensioners
Political Opportunities to participate in community life and influence

The inner city:
High population out-migration figures
Many boarded up shops
Many empty and derelict properties
The closing of schools, particularly primary schools and low levels of education
High levels of…

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among school leavers, the poorly qualified, the poorly skilled and ethnic minorities. In 1994, the
inner cities of Britain had an unemployment rate 50% higher than the rest of the country.

Population loss and social decline

1951 ­ 1981, the UK's largest conurbations lost 35% of their population, mainly due…

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High rise flats were a common feature of both inner city renewal and peripheral council estates in
the 1960s and 1970s. Many were not well built and were hated due to:

Lack of community feel
Poorly ventilated and damp
Open spaces belonged to no one thus were vandalised
Poor design…

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proved popular under the right to buy legislation, so many are still rented. Thus such estates
contain above average numbers of society's most vulnerable:

Low income households
The unemployed
The elderly living in poverty

They have a range of social and economic problems.


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