Chapter 1 Summary

Specifically for the OCR Exam board, has notes on everything you need to know from chapter 1

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  • Created on: 15-05-11 11:05
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Chapter 1 Summary
Data, Information and Knowledge
Data is made up of alphanumeric characters.
Information = Data + Structure + Context + Meaning
Knowledge is the application and use of the information.
Representation Methods
1. Text (including writing)
Advantages Disadvantages
Clear to understand Need to be able to read.
Lots of detailed information can be conveyed. Need to understand the language.
Can be confusing ­ level of language.
Lots of text cannot be read quickly ­ road
2. Graphics (including pictures)
Advantages Disadvantages
Multilingual ­ don't need language to Can be confusing if you do not know the
understand an image symbols, not everyone knows the road signs.
Can match what you see ­ physical shapes. Some symbols don't mean the same thing in
different countries.
3. Sound (including voice)
Advantages Disadvantages
No fixed position. No good in large areas ­ distortion of sound.
No line of sight required. Usually language based.
Good for visually impaired people. May not know the sound ­ e.g. different alarms
have different sounds.
Need to be able to hear.
4. Moving Pictures (animation or video)
Advantages Disadvantages
Lots of information can be conveyed. Linear ­ if you do not see the beginning you
may not understand.

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Not language dependent. Problems if sound.
Can exemplify text.
5. LED (sequence of lights)
Advantages Disadvantages
Can allow data to be kept secure. Need to be able to see the lights.
Can be used in noisy places. Combinations of lights may need to be
known to be understood.
Similar to graphics.
Data types
Boolean Real Integer String Date/Time
Definition One of only Numbers Whole Alphanumeri Numbers
two values. with numbers c characters and letters
Example True / False 123.…read more

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Analysis might already have May not have all the
been completed on some of information about how, when
the data. and where it was collected to
make a valued opinion on its
If the information was not
originally collected, may not
be able to get hold of it.
Static and Dynamic Data
Static data is data that shows little or no change.…read more

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Can access a lot of free content.
Quality of Information
1. Accuracy
2. Relevance
3. Age
4. Completeness
5. Presentation
6.…read more


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