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Revision Notes: Chapter 1 ­ Atomic Structure

Discovering the Electron:

Electrolysis :
When electricity flows through a solution of metal salt, the metal appears at the
cathode (negative electrode).
This is because the metal exists in the solution as positive charged ions
One metal ion plus one unit of electricity…

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passed straight through the gold atoms or were deflected very slightly, and a very small
number were deflected back more than 90º.
Rutherford came up with the nuclear model: There is a tiny, positively charged nucleus at
the centre of the atom where most of its mass is concentrated, surrounded…

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This is what is shown on the periodic table and is not usually a whole number e.g. 35.5Cl
Ar can be worked out from isotopic abundances. For example, 76% chlorine atoms
have relative isotopic mass of 35, while 24% have relative isotopic mass of 37.
(76 x 35) + (24…


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