chap one and two of storylines text book

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Fact sheet: green industry
The operations of a manufacturing process
Chemical industry makes money thorough chemical conversions and then selling
products for further chemical reactions or forming final products. These final
products vary from cleaners, paint, inks, dies and soaps to medicine, polymers
pesticides, fertilizers and fuels to name a few. We sue most of these products in
our everyday lives thus showing the practical importance of the chemical industry.
Batch or continuous
Chemical manufacturing is the process, by which new products are made, this
happens in a chemical plant. Chemical manufacture requires specific instructions
· use of equipment
· quality and quantity of raw material
· mixing sequence
· reaction conditions (temp & pressure)
· The purification process.
Unit operation is the sequence of events in a chemical process, depending on the
process this can be organized in 2 different ways - batch processing or continuous
Basically in batch processing it's processed in batches, product goes through each
stage in production in batches.
In continuous processing, products are being continuously produced and move
through the stages of production continuously
advantages disadvantages
Cost effective for small Charging and emptying reactor is
quantities, capital cost is lower. time consuming, no more product
Slower reaction can also happen is being formed during this time
Range of products can be made Larger work force needed
in the same vessel Contamination is more likely
Greater % conversion achieved Exothermic reactions are more
compared to same sized difficult to control
continuous reaction.
Suited to high amount of High capital cost before any
production reaction can happen
Greater through put, shutdown Not cost effective when run
unlikely for months below full capacity
Contamination risk low when Contamination risk is higher when
used for just one products used for more than one product
Consistent quality ensured
Minimal labor
Easily automated
15.2 Raw materials
Raw materials are the substances from which the feedstock is made - these are
the reactants of the chemical process, therefore raw materials are the starting
point in the chemical process. Often they must be prepared before they can be
used so there sufficiently pure and present in the right quantities. E.g. largest part
of a ammonia plant is concerned with feedstock preparations so the nitrogen and

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Air water and methane
are the raw materials of ammonia. Methane reacted with steam to produce
hydrogen, nitrogen obtained through fractional distillation of liquidities air.
Important factor of feedstock preparation is getting it in to a manageable form,
gases and liquids are easily transferred through pipes across the plant of even the
country. Pumping is expensive, so costs are kept to a minimum reducing the
number of pumps and length of pipe.…read more

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However many well-established locations have problems extending their plant
or building new facilities due to concerns with the growing population, so
new plants seek remote locations, but then they are criticized for ruining the
This actual site should be based around communication links. Building new
links would add significant cost to the chemical plant, road, railway and
water are all important means of transport, and deep sea access is important
for transporting bulks materials like oil.…read more

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Green industry
This is to limit the impact on the ecosystem, this is done by:
minimizing waste by; recycling and making use of waste products
reduce energy consumption by; catalyst or enzymes, these reduce the
activation energy to less is needed therefore increasing atom economy
reduce feedstock consumption
These also improve the profit margin, action towards being more environmentally
friendly also save on costs. Green chemistry is thought the sustainable way
15.…read more


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