Change In Urban Environments Notes- Aqa GCSE Geography

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Urbanization- The increase in proportion (%) of people moving to live in the Urban areas
Urban- An area that has a large density of population and has commercial land use
Counter-urbanization- moving way from Urban areas to Rural areas
Rural-urban migration- moving from rural to urban areas
Reasons for Urbanization:
Better range of Jobs
Better standards of Living- Better health Care
More services and shops
`Social centre'
Push factors from rural- mechanization, droughts etc
Urban Issues:
Housing- There is a massive problem in meeting the demand for housing.
Regenerating old inner city houses into high-rise flats. More people are able to live in a block of flats
than on terraced house. It also makes the inner city more attractive.
Try to re-locate people for example offering them incentives to move elsewhere
Building new town Eg Milton Keynes
The government has planned to build 240,000 new houses every year.
Inner City-These areas are becoming run-down and derelict, and have a high crime rate
Many old buildings are regenerated into newer, more attractive homes
Investment has been put into inner city areas to improve transport and communication links.
The government has tried to encourage more business in these areas
UDCs (Urban Development Corporations)- London Docklands development- was at work for 17 years
and achieved many thing:
o £114km new and improved roads
o Construction of the Docklands light Railway
o 24,046 new homes built
o 2,700 businesses trading
o Contributions to 5 new health centres and redevelopment of 6 more
o Funding towards 11 new primary schools, 2 secondary schools, 2 post-16 colleges and 9
vocational training centres.
City challenge- Hulme, Manchester- aimed to improve housing that had been built in the 60s to
replaces the old terraces that once stood there.
o Crescents built in the 60s demolished in the 90s
o Some old buildings retained
o Homes designed to conserve water and be energy efficient and pleasant
o Local schools and new park built
o Views of local people taken into account
Central Business District (CBD)- These are declining, out of town shopping a lot more pleasant
Traffic-causes a lot of pollution,
Charge a higher fee- reduces the number of cars in the area- encourages people to take the train/
public transport
Introduce parking fees
Traffic calming- rising bollards, speed bumps etc
Introduce ring roads
Multicultural mix- Ethnical segregation, people of different ethnic groups tend to cluster together.
Give the children better education so they can have a better live, and don't have to live in such
deprived areas.
Teach them English
Increase employment through initiatives
Increase community involvement by ensuring that minority groups have their needs met.
Provide facilities.
Greenfield vs Brownfield Sites
New sites don't need clearing
More spaces for gardens to be developed
No restrictions on where the road can be built
Land is cheaper
Pleasant environment may appeal to some
Water, electricity and other services are already there
Roads already exsist

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Sites in the city aren't left derelict
Planning permission is easier to obtain
Commuting time is cut
Squatter settlements
Squatter settlements are found on the outside of cities in less developed countries, and they rapidly increase
in size because many of the people migrating from villages do not have skills to find proper work . When they
enter the city, these squatter settlements are the first things they see, and they want to become a part of it.…read more

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Case Study- Top Down- 10th Ramadan- Eygpt
10th of Ramadan is located East of the River Nile, It is located along a main road so there is easy access to it.
It is 50 miles from Cairo
Poor quality housing- the 10th Ramadan is a building settlement providng cheap housing along with shops
to enabe people to live there. It encourages people (who live on roofs/ city of the dead/ shanti towns)
to move away from the overcrowded city to a more safer environment.…read more

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Even though the ecological footprint is greatly reduces- 1.7 planets (compared to the UK average of 3
planets) it is more than the target of 1 planet.…read more


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