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Chall's stages of reading development
Stage Description Age Key Characteristics
0 Pre-reading and Up to 6 `Pretend Reading'
pseudo- reading (turn pages) some
name) Prediction of
words and events in
1 Initial reading and 6-7 Reading of texts with
decoding high frequency lexis
2 Confirmation and 7-8 Reading texts more
fluency and more accurately
3 Reading For Learning 9-14 Reading for
4 Multiplicity and 14-17 Responding critically
complexity to what they read
5 Construction and 18+ Selective reading
reconstruction Forming opinions.