Challenges for the Planet and Geographical Skills

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Geography Revision ­ Geographical Skills and Challenges for the
Geographical Skills
Labelling ­ naming a feature
Annotation ­ adding an explanation to a label/feature
Mercator projection ­ shape of the countries as seen from space ­ sizes not accurate ­ trim off
Antarctica ­ equator is 2/3 down the map and Europe is centred
Peters projection ­ shows countries according to their real size ­ shapes look unfamiliar
Map information
Altitude Contours and spotheights ­ avoid terms like
`mountainous' unless certain
Relief Contours and distances ­ use terms like flat, steeply,
sloping, undulating
Aspect Contours and compass points ­ `Southwest facing
slope' ­ scale might obscure details of local variations
Surface Drainage Rivers, lakes, drainage ditches ­ not all rivers are
Land Use Don't read too much into place names ­ map symbols
Settlement Size Only area not population ­ unknown height of buildings
Settlement Distribution Use distances
Settlement Function Use map symbols
Most OS maps = 1:50 000
Contours at 10m intervals
Nucleated ­ clustered
Liner ­ lines
Dispersed ­ no pattern, spread out
Challenges for the Planet
The causes, effects and responses to climate change
How and why climate has changed since the last ice age
Changes in the Earth's orbital geometry
o Earth orbits on a variable orbit
o Wobbles on axis
o Angle of tilt also varies

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Variations known as Milankovitch Mechanism ­ could be cause of ice ages
Changes in Solar Output
o Energy transmitted varies by small amounts
o Changes aren't large ­ have great effect on the earth's temperatures
Catastrophic Events
o Volcanic activity & meteors result in large amounts of material being ejected into the atmosphere
o Evidence linking events to changes in the Earth's temperature
Laki Eruption ­ 1783
o 27km of vents poured out lava for 8 months ­ largest lava flow for 1000 years
o…read more

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High income countries reached high levels of consumption
o Raise levels to dangerous levels
Tata Motors ­ cheap affordable car ­ sell in vast numbers ­ contribute to carbon dioxide levels
The negative effects that climate change is having on people
Climate change will affect the weather and climatic conditions
Possible hazardous weather events
Food production
o Crop yield
o Almost every country depends on foreign imports
o Has 40 days supply
o Food prices will rise
o Wheat belts ­ responsible for growing large…read more

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Shelters built along coast
Early warning
Offers clear warning about future
Agriculture ruined by salt water
Sewage system disrupted
o Needs $3.…read more

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Unsustainable cities
Not all places are planned with the environment in mind
Some modern technology increases energy consumption
Tourism involving longdistance travel poses challenges for the environment
International Campaigns
1988 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change set up Reported that the Earth has warmed 0.5ºC. They
recommend strong measures
1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro UNFCC is signed by 154 nations. Prevents
serious warming.…read more

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Fuel consumption in compact cities is lower
o High density ­ public transport is developed and used ­ easier to solve in highdensity cities
o Amsterdam ­ 700,000 bicycles and a tram network
Congestion Charging
o Before ­ 334,000 vehicles entered the central zone
o 2006 ­ drop of 21%
o Traffic in western extension dropped by 25%
o Policy a success (environmentalists) ­
Greenhouse emissions in the zone reduced by 25%
Healthaffecting pollutants dropped by 12%
Resource Extraction from tropical rainforests
Lightly populated regions…read more

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Waterway pollution
Smallholders are totally dependent on the palm company and price fluctuations
Less biodiversity…read more


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