Chains, Energy and Resources Key words

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  • Created on: 01-06-13 12:15
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Empirical formula is the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element present in a
Molecular formula is the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule
General formula is the simplest algebraic formula for a member of a homologous series e.g.
for an alkene CnH2n
Structural formula is the minimal detail that shows the arrangement of atoms in a molecule
e.g for ethane CH3CH3
Displayed formula is the relative positioning of atoms and the bonds between them
Skeletal formula is the simplified organic formula, shown by removing hydrogen atoms from
alky chains, leaving just a carbon skeleton and associated functional groups
Homologous series ­ a series of organic compounds with the same functional group, but
each successive member differs by CH2
Functional group ­ a group of atoms responsible for the characteristic reactions of a
Structural Isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula, but different structural
Stereoisomers are compound which have the same structural formula but have a different
arrangement in space
E/Z isomerisation is an example of stereoisomerism. There must be a double bond,
restricted rotation and two different groups to be attached to each carbon atom of the C=C
Cistrans isomerism is a special case of E/Z isomerism in which two of the substituent
groups are the same.
Homolytic fission ­ the breaking of a covalent bond where two radicals are formed, leaving
each species with an unpaired electron
Hetrolytic fission ­ the breaking of a covalent bond, with both of the bonded electrons going
to one of the atoms, forming a cation (+ ion) and an anion ( ion)
Addition Reaction ­ a reaction in which a reactant is added to an unsaturated molecule, to
make a saturated molecule
Substitution Reaction ­ a reaction in which an atom, or group of atoms is replaced with a
different atom, or group
Atom economy ­ a measure of how much of the reactant is converted into desired product
Percentage yield ­ the efficiency of converting reactants into products

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Hydrocarbon ­ a compound which only contains carbon and hydrogen
Crude oil ­ a source of hydrocarbons
Fractional Distillation a process in which hydrocarbons of different chain length and boiling
point can be separated
Saturated Hydrocarbon a hydrocarbon which contains no carbon to carbon double bonds
Unsaturated Hydrocarbon ­ a hydrocarbon which contains one or more carbon to carbon
double bonds
Cracking breaking long chained alkanes into shorter chained alkenes and alkanes using a
Radical ­ a species with an unpaired electron
Catalytic Hydrogenation…read more

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Hess' Law ­ if a reaction can take place by more than one route, and the initial and final
conditions are the same, it doesn't matter which route is taken, the total enthalpy change is
the same for each route
Le Chatelier's principal if a system is in dynamic equilibrium, and the conditions change,
equilibrium will shift to minimise the change
Dynamic equilibrium ­ exists when the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the
reverse reaction.…read more


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