Cellular Control Questions

Questions for OCR Biology (from 2009 onwards). I created these questions as a form of revison for the first module.

Please note that these questions do not cover everything in module 1 (sorry). 

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QUESTIONS ON MODULE 1: CELLULAR CONTROL. [F215]
Describe transcription. [5]
Define the term chromosome mutation . [1]
State what is meant by the term transcription and translation . [2]
State and explain what occurs in translation. [6]
Explain why the amino acid sequence in a protein is critical. [2]
Describe what happens when lactose in present in the culture medium. [5]
What is meant by the term homeobox genes ? [2]
The structural genes codes for specific enzymes. State the enzymes and their functions. [2]
Describe what occurs in apoptosis . [5]
Define the term meiosis . [1]
State two differences between meiosis and mitosis . [2]
Describe two differences between meiosis I and meiosis II. [2]
Suggest how codominance occurs. [1]
State and explain the process of meiosis . [9]
How could fertilisation lead to variation of alleles? [1]
Describe the process of crossingover . [3]
Define the term continuous variation. [1]
Suggest the differences in the genetic basis of continuous and discontinuous variation. [4]
Compare and contrast natural selection and artificial selection . [5]
Suggest how genetic drift could cause large changes in a population. [2]
Explain the role of an isolating mechanism in the evolution of new species. [3]

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MARK SCHEME / EXAMPLE ANSWERS
Describe transcription. [5]
Transcription is the first stage in protein synthesis. A mRNA molecule is made. First, the gene to be
transcribed unwinds and unzips. The hydrogen bonds between complementary bases are broken.
Then activated RNA nucleotides bind, using hydrogen bonds, to their complementary exposed
bases on the template strand. This is catalysed by RNA polymerase.…read more

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The structural genes codes for specific enzymes. State the enzymes and their functions.
[2]
Y codes for lactose permease, which increases the uptake of lactose. Z codes for galactosidase,
which breaks down lactose.
Describe what occurs in apoptosis. [5]
Enzymes break down the cell's cytoskeleton. The cytoplasm becomes dense and blebs form as the
cell surface membrane changes. Chromatin condenses and the nuclear envelope breaks down.
DNA also breaks down into fragments. The cell then breaks down into vesicles, which are taken up
by phagocytosis.…read more

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Describe the process of crossingover. [3]
Homologous chromosomes form bivalents. Nonsister chromatids wrap around each other and
attach at chiasmata. Chromosomes may break resulting in broken ends of chromatids rejoining to
ends of nonsister chromatids in same bivalent.
Define the term continuous variation. [1]
Quantitative variation where there are a wide range of phenotypic variation within the
population. There are no discrete/distinct categories.
Suggest the differences in the genetic basis of continuous and discontinuous variation.…read more

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