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QUESTIONS ON MODULE 1: CELLULAR CONTROL. [F215]

Describe transcription. [5]
Define the term chromosome mutation . [1]
State what is meant by the term transcription and translation . [2]
State and explain what occurs in translation. [6]
Explain why the amino acid sequence in a protein is critical. [2]
Describe…

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MARK SCHEME / EXAMPLE ANSWERS
Describe transcription. [5]
Transcription is the first stage in protein synthesis. A mRNA molecule is made. First, the gene to be
transcribed unwinds and unzips. The hydrogen bonds between complementary bases are broken.
Then activated RNA nucleotides bind, using hydrogen bonds, to their complementary exposed…

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The structural genes codes for specific enzymes. State the enzymes and their functions.
[2]
Y codes for lactose permease, which increases the uptake of lactose. Z codes for galactosidase,
which breaks down lactose.
Describe what occurs in apoptosis. [5]
Enzymes break down the cell's cytoskeleton. The cytoplasm becomes dense and…

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Describe the process of crossingover. [3]

Homologous chromosomes form bivalents. Nonsister chromatids wrap around each other and
attach at chiasmata. Chromosomes may break resulting in broken ends of chromatids rejoining to
ends of nonsister chromatids in same bivalent.

Define the term continuous variation. [1]
Quantitative variation where there are a…

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