Cells, Tissue and Organs

For Additional Science B2.

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  • Created by: Elham.
  • Created on: 10-04-14 20:10
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BIOLOGY GCSE ADDITIONAL SCIENCE
Cells, Tissues & Organs
Animal cells ­ structure + function
The Nucleus
o Controls ALL activities of cell
o Contains genes on the chromosomes
o Carry instructions for making new cells & new organisms
The Cytoplasm
o Liquid gel in which most of the chemical reactions needed for life
take places
The Cell Membrane
o Controls the passage of substances into & out of the cell
The Mitochondria
o Structures in cytoplasm where Oxygen is used and most of the
energy is released during respiration
Ribosomes
o Protein synthesis takes place
o ALL proteins needed in cell made here
Plant cells ­ structure + function
Have all features of typical animal cell but they have extra for their survival!
ALL plants and algal cells have:
Cell wall
o Made of cellulose ­ strengthens cell & gives support
Many but not all have:
Chloroplast
o Found in green parts of plant - green because contain green
substance (chlorophyll)
o Chlorophyll absorb light energy to make food by photosynthesis
o ROOTS CELLS NOT HAVE CHLOROPLAST ­ DON'T
PHOTOSYNTHESISE & NOT GREEN
Permanent Vacuole
o Space in cytoplasm filled with cell sap
o Important for keeping cells rigid ­ support plant

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BIOLOGY GCSE ADDITIONAL SCIENCE
Bacterial Cells
Each bacterium ­ single
cell
made up of cytoplasm
surrounded by
membrane & cell wall
inside Genetic Material
(not contained in
nucleus) ­ long strand
DNA (bacterial
chromosome) = circular
& found free in
cytoplasm
Plasmids ­ small circular bits of DNA carry extra genetic info.
Slime capsule around outside of cell wall
Some bacteria at least have one flagellum (pl. flagella) ­ long protein strand,
lashes about.…read more

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BIOLOGY GCSE ADDITIONAL SCIENCE
Fat Cells
If eat more than needed ­ body makes
fat & stores it
Help animals & us, to survive when food
is in short supply
Small amount of cytoplasm & large
amounts of fat
Few mitochondria ­ cell needs little
energy
Can expand ­ fat cell can end up 1000
times its original size as it fills
Cone Cell from human eye
In light-sensitive layer or eye (the retina) ­ make possible to see colour
Outer segment
o Special chemical…read more

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BIOLOGY GCSE ADDITIONAL SCIENCE
Sperm Cells
Long tail whips from side to side ­
helps move sperm towards egg
Middle sections FULL of mitochondria
­ provides energy for the tail to work
The acrosome stores digestive
enzymes for breaking down the outer layers
of the egg
Large nucleus contains genetic info.…read more

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BIOLOGY GCSE ADDITIONAL SCIENCE
Diffusion in living organisms
Important substances move across cell by diffusion e.g.…read more

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BIOLOGY GCSE ADDITIONAL SCIENCE
o Muscular tissue - churn food & digestive juices of stomach together
o Glandular tissue ­ produce juices break that down food
o Epithelial tissue ­ covers the inside & outside of organ
The pancreas ­ organ that has 2 important function;
o Makes hormones to control blood sugar & makes some enzymes that
digest our food (contain 2 different type of tissues)
Organs combined = organ system carry out major functions e.g.…read more

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BIOLOGY GCSE ADDITIONAL SCIENCE…read more

Comments

khaledkaregar

this is soo helpful thank you Elham.

this helped me a lot

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