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BIOLOGY GCSE ADDITIONAL SCIENCE




Cells, Tissues & Organs
Animal cells ­ structure + function
The Nucleus
o Controls ALL activities of cell
o Contains genes on the chromosomes
o Carry instructions for making new cells & new organisms

The Cytoplasm
o Liquid gel in which most of the chemical reactions…

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BIOLOGY GCSE ADDITIONAL SCIENCE




Bacterial Cells
Each bacterium ­ single
cell
made up of cytoplasm
surrounded by
membrane & cell wall
inside Genetic Material
(not contained in
nucleus) ­ long strand
DNA (bacterial
chromosome) = circular
& found free in
cytoplasm
Plasmids ­ small circular bits of DNA carry extra…

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BIOLOGY GCSE ADDITIONAL SCIENCE




Fat Cells
If eat more than needed ­ body makes
fat & stores it
Help animals & us, to survive when food
is in short supply
Small amount of cytoplasm & large
amounts of fat
Few mitochondria ­ cell needs little
energy
Can expand ­ fat…

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BIOLOGY GCSE ADDITIONAL SCIENCE




Sperm Cells
Long tail whips from side to side ­
helps move sperm towards egg
Middle sections FULL of mitochondria
­ provides energy for the tail to work
The acrosome stores digestive
enzymes for breaking down the outer layers
of the egg
Large nucleus contains genetic…

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BIOLOGY GCSE ADDITIONAL SCIENCE




Diffusion in living organisms

Important substances move across cell by diffusion e.g.
water, simple sugars (glucose), amino acids from the
breakdown of proteins in your gut can pass through too
Oxygen for respiration passes from air to lungs, then goes
to red blood cells through membrane…

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BIOLOGY GCSE ADDITIONAL SCIENCE




o Muscular tissue - churn food & digestive juices of stomach together
o Glandular tissue ­ produce juices break that down food
o Epithelial tissue ­ covers the inside & outside of organ
The pancreas ­ organ that has 2 important function;
o Makes hormones to…

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BIOLOGY GCSE ADDITIONAL SCIENCE

Comments

khaledkaregar

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this is soo helpful thank you Elham.

this helped me a lot

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