Cells notes

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  • Created on: 15-05-14 19:17
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Cells
Cell Function Adaptation
Leaf palisade cell Carries out - Packed with chloroplasts containing light-
photosynthesis absorbing pigment (chlorophyll)
- Regularly shaped, closely packed cells form
continuous layer efficient absorption of sunlight.
Root hair cell Absorbs water and - Long 'finger-like' projection large surface area
minerals from the for absorption
soil into the plant - Covered in small hairs to increase surface area
Sperm cell Fertilises egg cell - Head contains genetic information, nucleus and an
(female gamete) enzyme to help penetrate the egg cell membrane.
- Middle section packed with mitochondria for
energy
- Tail (flagellum) moves the sperm to egg
Egg cell Female gamete- - Large cell compared to sperm
develops embryo - Possesses yolky cytoplasm = food source for
once fertilised by developing embryo before placenta develops
sperm
Contain - Thin outer membrane to let oxygen diffuse through
haemoglobin to easily
carry oxygen to - Bi-concave disc shape increases surface area
the cells. allows more oxygen to be absorbed efficiently +
more flexible framework (can squeeze through
Red blood cell smallest capillaries)
- No nucleus whole cell full of haemoglobin.
Guard Opens, closes and - Changes shape easily
cell regulates size of - Swells when filled with water
leaf pore
Ciliated Possesses cilia to - Mucus produced by goblet cells trap particles
epithelial trap dust, dirt and - Cilia waft particles back up the throat to be
cell microbes as we swallowed
inhale
Pollen cell Male gamete- - Tiny grain formed by meiosis (has half the genetic
fertilises ovules information)
(female gametes) - Hard protective outer coat to survive bad
conditions
- Shape and surface of outer coat adapted to
dispersal method (smooth and sticky if insect,
large surface area if wind)

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Cells
Structure Function
Nucleus Contains genetic material which controls cells behaviour
Cell membrane Controls what passes in and out of cell
Cytoplasm Where chemical processes (controlled by enzymes) and anaerobic
respiration occur
Mitochondrion/a Site of aerobic respiration
Cell wall (made of cellulose) To strengthen and give support to cell
Chloroplast Contains chlorophyll to enable photosynthesis to take place
Vacuole Stores cell sap.…read more

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Cell
nerve
Organ
Tissue
function
function
Organism
organisms
leaf, flower
the organism
Organ system
tissues working
skeletal system
nervous system,
E.g. blood, bone.
perform specific
- Made up of cells
cells, palisade cells
a specific activity
basic life processes
- Basic unit in living
specific function for
similar in structure
tissues: connective,
E.g. blood cells, bone
Levels of organisation
working together to
- Made up of tissues
Humans have 4 basic
which can carry out all
epithelial, muscle and
- Entire living organism
E.g.…read more

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Cells
Diffusion
- Movement of molecules from a higher to a lower concentration until equilibrium is reached
- Gases move through plasma membranes by diffusion
- Factors affecting rate:
- Distance: e.g. membranes in lung are very thin
- Concentration gradients: the steeper the gradient, the faster the diffusion rate (e.g.
Blood removes oxygen quickly from lungs to maintain gradient)
- Surface area: the larger the surface area, the faster the rate (e.g.…read more

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Cells
- When answering a question about osmosis, state:
a) Where the highest water potential is
b) Direction of movement
Experiment Descript ion
c) Through partially permeable membrane
d) Resulting in increase/decrease of mass Water enters visking
tubing (proven by
increase in mass)
- Experiments
a) Egg placed in water gains mass, but egg
Water from visking tube
placed in salt solution loses mass (from (artificial cell) moves by
water lost by osmosis) osmosis into sugar
b) Visking tubing solution (mass of tubing
decreased)
c)…read more

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