Cells and Microscopy

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ChemistryUnit 1Aleesha Hussain
Nucleus: Contains chromatin, nucleolus, and DNA which provides the genetic code.
Nucleolus: Composed of proteins and RNA, this is responsible for the production of
ribosomes. RNA is used to produce rRNA with is combined with proteins to form the
ribosomes for protein synthesis.
Nuclear envelope: The nucleus is wrapped up in a double membrane nuclear envelope
with nuclear pores to allow substances, such as mRNA to pass into the cytoplasm.
Protects DNA.
Rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (er): A series of membrane bound tubules
enclosing a fluid-filled space which is covered in ribosomes. Here, proteins made at the
ribosomes are folded and modified within the network of tubules. The proteins are then
transported to the Golgi apparatus. As are the lipids and hormones produced at the sER.
Golgi apparatus: A group of fluid filled flattened sacs that modify and package proteins
before they are sent to their destination in vesicles.
Ribosomes: A very small organism either floating in the cytoplasm or attached to the RER.
One small unit and a larger one make up the site for protein synthesis.
Mitochondria: Usually oval shaped, with a double membrane, the inner one folded to
form cristae. Inside is the matrix which contains the enzymes for aerobic respiration, to
produce ATP energy.
Lysosomes: A rounded fluid filled sac that contains digestive enzymes to digest invading
cells and also unwanted organelles. As small membrane bound sacs they are a form of
Chloroplasts: Oval shaped, double membrane, green organelles that absorb light for
photosynthesis. The internal membrane provides a large surface area for the necessary
enzymes, proteins and pigment molecules.
All cells have a cell-surface membrane and, in addition, eukaryotic cells have internal
membranes, which enables control of the passage of substances across exchange surfaces
by passive or active transport.
Centrioles: Small set of microtubules that move towards the poles (opposite ends) of the
nucleus when it is time for cell division.
Cell wall: A permeable structure made from either cellulose or muerin that supports the
cell and prevents osmotic lysis.
Flagella: Thin structure which acts as a motor to aid movement.
Cilia: Slender organelles that wave to waft out bacteria and mucus.
The interrelationship between organelles involved in the production / secretion of
The Nucleus contains the DNA for a protein
RNA is sent to the rER for protein synthesis
Pass into the cisternae od the ER for modification and folding,
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ChemistryUnit 1Aleesha Hussain
Protein placed into vesicles and transported to the Golgi apparatus
Vesicles fuse with the cis surface of the Golgi and are transported into the Golgi, the
proteins are further modified and packaged into vesicles and leave via the trans surface of
the Golgi.
Some secretary vesicles transport the proteins to the cell surface membrane where the
protein leaves via exocytosis. Other vesicles form lysosomes which contain enzymes for use
in the cell.
Prokaryotic cells are much smaller than eukaryotic cells.…read more


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