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Cell Signalling


Communication between cells can use either:
o Nervous system
Impulses sent along neurones
Very fast
Results in a short lived response
Has specific nerve pathways
o Hormones
Secreted into the blood
Generally slower acting (one exception being adrenaline)
Long lasting response
Wide acting, with one hormone affecting a…

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Hormones ­ (Blood Glucose Regulation)

Steroids ­ Lipid soluble so are able to easily pass through phospholipid membranes
and effect cells.
Protein/Polypeptides ­ Can not pass through cell membranes so need to use
Secondary (2°) messengers in order to effect cells.

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Pancreas ­ Responsible for blood glucose regulation.
o Exocrine gland ­ Secretes enzymes into the pancreatic duct and then into the
small intestine to aid digestion.
o Endocrine gland
Islets of Langerhans
Alpha () Cells ­ make/secrete GLUCAGON
Beta () Cells ­ make/secrete INSULIN

Both insulin and glucagon are protein…

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