Cell organelle structure and function

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Organelle Function + Structure
Nucleus Fact File-The largest organelle-A+P
Feature Structure Function
Chromatin Stains dark red in the nucleus Consists of DNA and proteins
during interphase of mitosis Has instructions for making
and meiosis. proteins, some of which
Consists of nucleic acids and regulate the cell's activities
proteins. Condenses into chromosomes
during cell division.
Nuclear Double membrane structure Regulates flow of substances,
Envelope surrounding the nucleus with into and out of the nucleus
fluid between them
Nuclear Gaps in the membrane leading Channel substances into and out
pores to the nucleus-relatively large of the nucleus
molecules can pass through
here

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Nucleolus Dense spherical structure The nucleolus makes RNA and
ribosomes
The RNA, which will be made
into ribosomes, is synthesised in
the nucleolus.
o Ribonucleic acid a single
stranded polynucleotide
molecule that exists in
three forms.…read more

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Ribosomes-A+P
Structure Function
Tiny organelles The site of protein synthesis.
No membrane Await coded information (mRNA) from the
Some are bound to ER others are free in nucleus to assemble proteins from amino
the cytoplasm acids.
The proteins (which include enzymes) that
are synthesised then move into the cavities
of the RER to be transported.…read more

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Structure Function
Small tubes of protein fibres Take part in cell division
Pair of them next to the nucleus of animal They are involved in the formation of
cells spindle fibres used in mitosis
These move chromosomes during nuclear
division…read more

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Chloroplasts P + some protactists
Feature Structure Function
Outer and Inner Separated by a fluid-filled space Photosynthesis reactions
membrane Inner membrane is continuous with a take place in the
network of thylakoids membranes and stroma.…read more

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Then packages modified proteins into
vesicles that may be secreted
Some cells go to the surface of the cell
ready to be secreted.
Lysosomes P+A
Structure Function
Spherical sacs surrounded by a single Lysosomes contain powerful digestive
membrane enzymes-break down materials
White blood cell lysosomes help break
microorganisms
Head of sperm holds many lysosomes to
penetrate the egg by breaking down the
surrounding material.…read more

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A fluid-filled space in the cytoplasm It contains a solution of sugars and salts
surrounded by a membrane called called the cell sap.
the tonoplast.…read more

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