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Chapter 1


Cell Structure ­ Summary Notes
Microscopes

Light microscopes:
Glass lenses refract light produce magnified image
Must have thin
and transparent specimens
Specimens must be stained structures visible
Resolution = 200nm
Magnification = image size / object size
mm (÷1000) m (÷1000) nm
Resolution ­ degree of detail that…

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Chapter 1

E.g. liver cells ­ toxins broken down here
Golgi apparatus:
Stack of curved membranes enclosing flattened sacks
Unstable structure ­ always changing
One side ­ vesicles from ER join on
Other side ­ sacks break down vesicles move away
Packages and p rocesses proteins
Exocytosis:
Vesicles (containing processed…

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Chapter 1

Cilia/flagella:
Long, thin extensions from cell surface
Some animal cells, rarely plant cells
Cilia ­ shorter, large numbers
Flagella ­ longer, one or two
Contain microtubules in 9+2 arrangement
Move by microtubules sliding against each other
Cilia ­ move fluids over cell surface
Flagella ­ make cell swim…

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