Cell Structure Revision Notes

Contains information on the following topics;

Organelles, Animal cell, plant cell, prokaryotic cell, Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes, viruses, protein synthesis (extracellular proteins), cell fractionation, specialised cells 

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Cell Revision Notes

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Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells;
Organelle Diagram Structure Function
Nucleus Nuclear envelope~ Double *Control centre of the cell
membrane that surround the through production of mRNA
nucleus and tRNA hence protein
Nuclear Pore~ allows synthesis
passage of large molecules *Retain genetic information
e.g.…read more

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Mitochondria Usually rod-shaped and 1-10 *Site of aerobic respiration
micrometres in length *Responsible for the
Double membrane around production of energy~ carrier
the cell that controls molecule ATP from
entry/exits of material. The respiratory substance e.g.
inner membrane is folded to glucose
from extensions known a *Metabolically active; require
CRISTAE a plentiful supply of ATP
Formed when the vesicles *Hydrolyse material ingested
produced by the Golgi by phagocytic cells
apparatus contain enzymes *Release enzymes out of
such as protease or lipase.…read more

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STROMA(fluid) has enzymes
for stage 2 photosynthesis
Golgi apparatus Have flattened sacs, *Rough endoplasmic
membranes called cristae reticulum transport the
Vesicles~ small, round , protein to the Golgi
hollow- pinch off apparatus apparatus
*Packages proteins in
vesicles and transport to all
membranes and out of cell
*Form lysosomes
* Transport + modify + store
lipids
Ribosomes Very small but are present in *Involved in protein synthesis
large numbers.…read more

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The especially proteins
membranes enclose a throughout the cell
network of tubules and
flattened sacs called
CISTERNAE
Smooth Endoplasmic Same as RER but lack *synthesise, transport and
Reticulum (SER) ribosomes store lipids
*synthesise, transport and
store hormones
Cell wall In plants- made of micro *Provides strength to cell to
fibrils of cellulose stop bursting
(polysaccharide) *Strengthens plant as a
In fungi- made of chitin whole
(polysaccharide) *Allows water to pass along
Thin layer between cells it -> contributes to water
called middle lamella to movement…read more

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Some pigment such as
anthocyanin
Comparing animal, plant and prokaryotic cells…read more

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