Cell Division and Cellular Organisation: Summary notes

My summary notes from last year on cell division and cellular organisation

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  • Created by: sxrcha
  • Created on: 17-10-15 14:31
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Chapter 3
Cell Division and Cellular Organisation ­
Summary Notes
The cell cycle
Repetitive process of growing and dividing
Stages:
Interphase
Mitosis ­ prophase, metaphase,
anaphase, telophase
Cytokinesis
Growth
Interphase:
DNA = duplicated ­ can be perfectly divided between 2 cells
Pair of identical DNA molecules in each chromosome ­ attached by c entromere
2 identical strands of DNA = chromatids
Proofreading enzymes move along new DNA ­ c heck and correct mutations
Mitosis:
Prophase:
DNA molecules supercoil chromosomes become visible
Chromatids held at centromere contain identical molecules of DNA
Nucleolus disappears
Centrioles move to opposite sides form microtubules ­ spindle
Metaphase:
Nuclear membrane breaks down
Microtubules attach to centromeres line up chromosomes in
centre of
cell
Anaphase:
Centromeres split
Chromatids pulled to opposite poles
Telophase:
Chromatids at either end = full set of genetic material
Spindle fibres break down
Nuclear envelopes form around each set of chromosomes
Chromosomes uncoil
Cytokinesis:
Cytoplasm divides 2 separate cells
Cells = genetically identical
Growth phase:
New cells grow to full size

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Chapter 3
Process begins again…read more

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