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Nadine Allen


Actus Reus
For D to be charged with a criminal act it must be established that D caused the
end result. This is an essential part of the crime as if it can't be established then D
can't be guilty of the crime.
Causation is present in…

Page 2

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Nadine Allen

D took his pregnant girlfriend from her home and held her hostage. Police arrived
and called for him to surrender, he came out of the house using his girlfriend as a
human shield and began firing at the police. The police fired back and the girlfriend

Page 3

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Nadine Allen

D did start the chain of events so should be responsible. BUT is it unfair to
convict D for the end result if the end result was totally unforeseeable?
D was guilty of manslaughter ­ it's foreseeable that if you shoot at the police they
will shoot…

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Nadine Allen

Doctors switching off life support machine doesn't break the chain. Stab wound
was "an operating and substantial cause of death"
A young girl screamed loudly whilst she was being assaulted by D. she was holing a
baby at the time and the baby got so scared it…

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Nadine Allen

death the jury were entitled to convict D. V also sort of committed suicide, they
wounds were the cause of the death.
F - The medical treatment given is inadequate

Sometimes doctors can make mistakes with medical treatment. The courts
recognise this and are reluctant to let a…

Page 6

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Nadine Allen

Jordon hasn't been overruled and could be followed again
The courts don't like the decision of Jordan and have chosen to distinguish
against to so they don't have follow it. They was D to be guilty
Doctors make mistakes and the courts take a practical approach to…


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