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Causation:

In result crimes (where a consequence is part of the actus reus) it is necessary
to prove the accused's conduct caused the required consequence.

It is for the jury to decide if the accused caused the prohibited result following
a prohibited action.

Ashworth: argued that ­ since punishment is…

Page 2

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Examples of causal sequences giving rise to causation problems:

Subsisting conditions:

Medical conditions: where the victim suffers from a subsisting
medical condition which renders him particularly vulnerable to the
injury inflicted, the principle applied is that D must take V as he is. D
need not know of the condition…

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Environment Agency v Empress Car Co (1999) ­ the defendant
company stored diesel in a tank which had an unlocked tap on
it. The tap was opened by a person unknown and the entire
contents ran down the drain into the river. The charge was
causing pollution and the issue…

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the direct cause of V's death. This didn't exclude D's
responsibility.
`unless the negligent treatment was so independent of his acts,
and in itself so potent in causing death that [the jury] could
regard the contribution made by his acts as insignificant'. Per
Beldam LJ, at 677.

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