Case study volcanoes

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  • Created on: 10-05-14 09:18
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Mount St Helens Nevada Del Ruiz Eyjafjoll Kilauea Yellowstone's
Cascade Mountains, USA Columbia Iceland Hawaii Wyoming, USA
WHEN? May 18th 1980 November 13th 1985 March 20th 2010 Since 1983 640,000 years ago
WHY? Micro Juan De Fuca plate Nazca Plate sub under S. N. American plate pulling
Located on hot spot, in On an intra-plate hotspot
subducting under N. American American plate (destructive away from the Eurasian 1983 the volcano erupted that feeds the magma
plate (destructive boundary) boundary) plate (constructive causing a 4 mile long chamber
Magma travels through crust Magma travels through crust boundary) fissure, PU'U `O'O rose out
taking on some of its taking on some of its Situated on a large thermal
of the rainforest creating
characteristics (^ silica characteristics (^ silica content) plume more cracks and a 7 mile
content) long fissure to the sea
WHAT? - Cryptodome (150m) - dome - Ignored warnings from USGS - Fissure eruption - Kilauea's eruptions are - Massive pressure builds up
caused lateral blast - Small earthquake - An ash plume ­ 11,000m very effusive making it - Ejected 1,000km³ of rock,
- Earthquake 5.2 set off - Ash fall happened first high reasonably safe for tourists dust and volcanic ash into the
eruption REDCROSS started an evacuation - The 150m thick ice cap was - They are continuous but sky
- 17 pyroclastic flows, lahars plan but cancelled it when ash melted major floods ­ 700 move very fast which often - One thousand cubic
121m deep - TOUTE river fall stopped people evacuated means people taking kilometres of lava
raised 21 feet above its flood - Storm prevented people from - The ash had a 58% silica photos are caught by (Erupted now, within
level seeing the oncoming pyroclastic content making the eruption surprise 10,000km2 - total
- Raised SPIRIT LAKE by 41 feet flows and lahars more explosive when it - Stricter guidelines added destruction and 87,000
Evacuation response within 24 - The tephra and molten lava mixed with the magma in the area, place roped off deaths with 9 in 10 people
hours melted 1/10th of the glacier - dying due to the pyroclastic
- President CARTER came to 100m lahar/ 50kph flow. Within a 1,000km
view the devastation - Reporters came put not radius of the eruption, area
equipment will be covered in 15cm of
- 3 days before it came and it ash leading to destruction of
was broken homes (10cm enough to
collapse roofs of houses, 1 in
3 people dying)
WHO? - 221 houses destroyed - 5000 homes destroyed - Cost $2 billion - $102 - 181 residences - Everything that was alive
- 27 bridges + miles of road - Land abandoned - 28,000 left million in tourism in London destroyed, community would have plunged the
destroyed - 23,000 dead, 5,000 injured were 95,000 flights were centres and one world into a volcanic winter
- 57 dead - 15,000 animals dead cancelled and the commercial site all with in making it very unlikely for
- 7,000 big game dead + - Children went missing government spent money first eight years survival
millions of birds, fish and small on high tech monitoring - 40 dead, 45 injured
mammals equipment - Eight miles of road
destroyed

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