Case study of China population and One Child policy

Case study of China and One Child policy

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Overpopulation Case study China
Population: 1.3 billion -22% of the global population
Located in Eastern Asia
GDP per capita: 6,900 US$
Population density: 145 people per square kilometre
Rapid Population Growth
In 1949 the people's republic of China was founded
They improved living conditions in the country, such as food and water supplies, health care
and sanitation
Due to these improved conditions, the birth-rate rose considerably and between 1949 and 1988
China's population almost doubled from 540 million to 1050 million
Consequences of rapid population growth:
Shortage of natural resources
Freshwater: 2285m3 per person (1/4 of world average)
Famine from 1958-61 (Heading towards Malthusian crisis)
Lack of arable land due to urbanisation, natural disasters and soil erosion
0.078ha of arable land per person (1/4 of the world's national average)
Much of the national income used to cope with the additional population
High unemployment- 1.8 % in 1985, 4% in 2013
In 1970 the Government introduced its `later, longer, fewer policy'
the fertility rate fell from 5.81 in 1970 to 2.72 in 1978
Population growth rate fell from 2.1% in 1973 to 1.17 % in 1979
In 1979 the `One Child' policy was introduced
There were penalties if you had more than one child
There were financial benefits if you only had one child

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Overpopulation Case study China
Each province is allowed to adopt measures which take into account such factors as the
existing population density, resources and level of economic development. E.g. In Sichuan the
one child policy is strictly adhered to in both urban and rural areas
Success of the One Child Policy
Population growth reduced by 300 million since 1979
Fertility rate fallen from 5.75 in 1970 to 1.7 in 2000
This is below the replacement level of 2.…read more


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