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4 different plate boundaries
Collision zone plates move together + form mountains e.g. Himalayas
Constructive plates move apart + form volcanoes e.g. Mid Atlantic Ridge
Conservative plates rub past each other + form earthquakes e.g. San Andreas Fault
Destructive Plates sub duct under each other + form volcanoes e.g. Andes Mountains
Sakurajima, Japan Developed country volcano
Been erupting since 1950's up to 200 times a year.
The island with the volcano is now connected to the mainland due to the 1914 eruption.
7000 people live at the base of the volcano as there is fertile soil used to grow tea and rice.
To protect the people in japan, the volcano has concrete lahar channels to divert dangerous mud
Evacuation routes are clearly marked and people have regular evacuation drills.
There are concrete shelters, situated on the mountain and on the surrounding areas, to protect
people from bombs and ash.
To predict the eruption, aircrafts are used to measure the amount of gas the volcano gives off.
Hot springs on the volcano are monitored.
A tunnel in the volcano has seismometers. These monitor earthquakes which increase as magma rises.
Boreholes measure water temperature as magma heats it up.
Tiltmeters detect when the volcano swells up with magma.
Mount Nyriagongo Developing world volcano
Volcano sits in the African rift Valley
2002 Very hot and runny lava poured out of the volcano.
Rivers of lava 1000m wide flowed 20km into the city of Goma and 14 villages were destroyed.
100 people died from poisonous gas and getting trapped in lava.
As lava gushed out it triggered earthquakes and buildings collapsed, causing 125000 homes to be
However, the eruption was predicted and 400,000 people were evacuated, and later became
When people returned to Goma, over 120,000 were homeless.
The United Nations and Oxfam began a relief effort to help.
They sent in 260 tonnes of food in the first week, each receiving 26kg per family.
In the UK, a TV appeal asked people to give money to help.
Governments around the world gave $35 million to get aid for the refugees.
A large problem in developing countries is poverty. The people evacuated Goma with nothing, and
returned to find nothing waiting for them as all their houses were destroyed.
Niigata, Japan Developed world earthquake
2007 a magnitude of 6.8 earthquake struck Niigata.
11 died and 100 were injured, but the city has a population of 90,000.
Only 350 buildings were destroyed.
The epicentre was offshore, so there was less damage on land.
Japan has money to prepare for the eruption. Every year they have earthquake drills.
People keep emergency kits at home full of water, food, a torch and a radio.
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When building houses, they often have a damper in the roof acting like a pendulum, preventing the
building from swaying, Cross bracing stops floors collapsing, Shock absorbers built into cross braces,
a strong steel frame which is also flexible and stops cracking, strong double glazed windows which
stop broken glass shattering down and very deep foundations to prevent collapse.
Sichuan, China Developing world earthquake
2008 a magnitude of 8.0 earthquake hit.…read more