Case studies for Edexcel B Unit 9 Population Dynamics

Case studies you need to know for Edexcel B Geography Unit 9 Population Dynamics

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Population Dynamics
Japan's Changing Population - MEDC
Japan has the oldest population in the world
Over 65's make up 20.8% of the population.
There are 26.8 million pensioners including 25,000 people over the age of 100.
The average age is 44 which is the highest in the world.
The birth rate remains below replacement level.
Under-15s make up just 13.6% of the population.
Japans populations structure is changing because people in japan are living longer. This is due to a
healthy diet and a good quality of life. Japan spends more than 8% of its overall income on
The birth rate has also been declining since 1975. This is partly due to the rise in the average age at
which adults have their first children. The number of people getting married has also fallen, and the
age at which people get married has risen.
An increasing elderly population together with a shrinking younger population means that there will
be a number of challenges in the future.
There will be an increase in cost of pensions, if there are more elderly people living longer, there will
be fewer workers in the economy so higher taxes will be needed to fund those pensions.
A rising number of elderly people living in nursing homes, and everyone over 40 have to pay £20 a
month to pay for care for the elderly.
An increase in the cost of healthcare will also happen as more elderly people require medical
Mexico's Changing Population ­ LEDC
Mexico has a large youthful population.
Under-15s make up about 30% of the population.
The population grew from just 20 million in 1940 to 70 million in 1980 and is fast approaching 110
The average age in Mexico is just 26 and 47% of Mexico's young people are entering child bearing
There are several reasons why Mexico has a youthful population.
Although the birth rate is falling there is still a large percentage of young people. Even if these young
people had fewer children than their parents, the population would still be increasing.
It is expected that it will take at least 50 years for Mexico's population structure of Mexico loses its
pyramid shape, and the population levels.
A growing population, with an increasing percentage in young people means that there are a number
of challenges and opportunities facing Mexico, including an increase in school places as there is a
large youthful population, a growing manufacturing industry, and Mexico's economy is expected to
overtake the UKs by 2050, and although Mexico is a strong Catholic country, abortion has been
legalised in Mexico City in an attempt to reduce the number of abandoned children.
The One Child Policy

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The one child policy is one of the most well-known population policies.
The population in China was increasing too dramatically and in 1979 the Government introduced rules
to limit population growth.
Those couples who only have one child receive financial rewards and welfare benefits. Heavy fines
are imposed on those who have more than one child.
The policy has been successful in preventing 300 million births, however it has had some negative
effects.…read more

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The disadvantages are that overall wages are forced down, the health and welfare systems are
strained and immigrants often struggle to integrate with non-immigrants.…read more


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