Case studies for Edexcel B unit 12 Living Spaces

Case studies you need to know for Edexcel B Geography unit 12 living spaces

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Changing Employment
Contrasting Employment
Mexico is an industrializing country, and manufacturing is overtaking agriculture because of
skilled work forces and a large consumer market. I is increasingly dominated by tertiary and
quaternary industries, and the government encourage infrastructure.
Germany is deindustrialised, changing the economy in the 1970's and 80's. Financial
services and service sectors overtook manufacturing, which moved to cheaper sites. More
people are now involved in knowledge based and research with manufactured goods, and
Germany is now the 4th largest economy in the world.
The impacts of changing employment
The shipbuilding industry in Glasgow created close communities that were devastated by
deindustrialisation in the 1980's. The decline of shipbuilding also created a decline in steel
making, and coal mining.
Generations of wellqualified workers became jobless in the 80's. Glasgow contained some
of the most deprived areas in the UK. Those who could get to get jobs elsewhere moved,
so Glasgow's population fell.
There are 3 main reasons for deindustrialization reduced demand for traditional products
and new technology was being created, automation and mechanization increased
productivity and reduced the number of workers needed, and there was greater competition
from countries like India.
In areas such as Glasgow which suffered major decline, the government has helped to kick
start growth. Private industries by themselves rarely invest without a return, so te
government invests first to try and create a cycle of growth.
Investments took place in Arts and Culture, as Glasgow has a wealth of architecture from
famous architects, the old docks, as private property developers and shopkeepers start up
businesses here.
As manufacturing has declined, tertiary and quaternary industries have grown in importance.
Mumbai is the commercial capital of India. Home to nearly 13 million people, it contributes
4% of the country's GDP. It acts as an important economic hub, and provides 40% of
India's foreign trade as well as 40% of all income tax collections.
The average yearly income is $500 per person, which is almost three times the national
average. Many of India's big companies are located in Mumbai.
Mumbai's economy has diversed, and it now includes engineering, diamond polishing,
healthcare and information technology.
Most of India's major television and satellite networks, as well as its maor publishing houses
have their headquarters in Mumbai and it is the center of the Bollywood movie industry.
Although Mumbai has seen the closure of textile mills and the relocation of some of its
engineering, chemical and pharicutical industries, it still suffers from air pollution.
The pollution is caused by industries in the eastern suburbs and also by burning rubbish.
Brownfield Sites
The Olympic site in London is being built on a Brownfield site, due to deindustrialization
after World War 1. Before the Olympic site, the whole area had a very high unemployment
rate. It had one of the youngest boroughs in the UK, with 41% under the age of 21. Many
homes were overcrowded, and there was a lower life expectancy than the UK average.
Since building the Olympic site, a college has been built to help students get jobs on the site.

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Olympic park, and the area will receive money, from
tourists visiting. After the Olympics, the athlete's houses will be turned into social housing, so
the overcrowding rates should go down. 90% of the demolished materials from the park
have been reused or recycled, and the nearby river has been cleaned up. The area will be
more sustainable.
Managing employment change sustainability
Curitiba is a city of 1.6 million people, in south east Brazil.…read more


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