Case studies

Unit 1 Geography ASLevel Case Studies


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  • Created on: 14-05-11 16:08
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Case Studies
Causes and Impacts of flooding: South Asia 2007
South Asia floods most years because of:
Monsoon climate 80% of rain fell in 4 months
Low lying land ( Bangladesh 90% of land is less than 10m above sea level
Melting snow and ice for the Himalaya's.
The flooding was particularly severe in Bangladesh and India.
Physical Factors:
Monsoon cam suddenly after very early, dry summer.
heavy rain for a long duration
saturated soil > no infiltration > increased surface runoff and discharge
Peak discharges of Ganges and Brahmaputra coincided >increased discharge
Human Activities:
Deforestation in Nepal and Himalayas > less rainfall intercepted > increased
Growth of urban areas > surface runoff
Collapse of old earth dams > further flooding.
Social Impacts
over 2000 died
lack of clean drinking water > over 100000 people caught water Bourne diseases
25 million homeless
112000 houses destroyed in India
Dhaka inundated
4000 schools affected > loss of education
44 schools totally destroyed.
Economic impacts:
cost: US$ 1 billion
factories closed
loss of livestock ( 80% of Bangladesh rely on agriculture)
550000 hectares of flooded fields
1000km of roads destroyed
debt increased
Environmental factors:
rivers polluted with sewage
fertile silt on flood plain

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Human Factors:
No flood defences or flood warnings in place
little insurance
corrupt officials
Carlisle, Cumbria, 2005
River Eden runs through North Cumbria and reaches the sea near Carlisle
Large Drainage basin > higher discharge
Steep Sided Basin > runs quickly down the river
Streams drain into river > short lag time
Physical factors:
heavy rainfall
saturated ground > less infiltration > increased surface runoff
High peak discharge
Human Factors:
large built up areas
little infiltration
drains and sewerage systems overflowed
Social Impacts:
3 people…read more

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Polluted rivers.
Hard Engineering on the River Yangtze, China
Yangtze River flows through China, 6380km long and is the 3rd longest river in the world.
Seasonal flooding is common.
Rainy season June August
Often causes flooding > huge discharge
5 major floods 1931, 1935, 1949, 1954, 1998
1954 Covered 193000km2 of land.
Killed 33169.
18 million had to move.
Covered Wuhan city over 3 months
1998 Killed 3000
14million made homeless.…read more

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Temple of Zhang Fei
dams trap sediment > failure
destroys habitats
endangers species
increase flooding along tributaries
Levees negative effects:
1998 floods broke levees > devastating floods
Soft Engineering in Abingdon, England
Abingdon, South East England.
Built on flood plains of the River Thames and Ock.
1500 properties have a 1% chance of flooding in a given year.…read more

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cliffs made of boulder clay which is easily eroded through corrosion
prone to slumping when boulder clay is wet
narrow beaches
o Flamborough Head stops sediment from North replenishing beaches
o Made of chalk which dissolves rather than making sand
o coastal defences human cause
powerful waves
o long fetch from Artic ocean
o coast faces the dominant wind and wave direction NE
Social Impacts:
Property prices fallen
30 villages since roman times lost
Economic impacts:
visitor numbers in Bridlington Dropped by over 30%…read more

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These factors all played an important role in the Storm Surge of February 1953
WHAT: Storm surge
WHEN: February 1953
WHERE: North Sea towards East Anglia, Britain and The Netherlands (lowlying land)
Low pressure air allowed the sea to rise overall by 0.…read more

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Property damage between $60 billion and $125billion
Loss of wetlands
Coastal Flooding South Asia Tsunami
WHAT: a tsunami
WHEN: 26.12.04
WHERE: Southern Asia Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and India
Caused by a submarine earthquake in the Indian Ocean
Earthquake reached 9.…read more

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Bridlington is protected by a 4.7 m sea wall and timber groynes
2 rock groynes and 500m revetments built at Mappleton in 1991
o £2million built to protect the village
Groynes and a sea wall at Withernsea and rock armour
concrete sea wall, timber groynes and rock armour at Hornsea
Gabions South of Hornsea to protect caravan park
Easington gas terminal protected by Revetments
the Eastern side of spurn head is protected by groynes and rock armour.…read more

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More sustainable in the long term
more marshland larger habitats for wildlife
grazing land lost
Managing Population ­ Italy
low birth rates
falling fertility rates
ageing population
Population 58 million in 2005
will decline to 56 million by 2025 (even with net migration)
Tendency to stay at home with parents longer than other Europeans.…read more

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Some parts of the country it was advice, some parts strictly enforced.
'Carrot and Stick':
Incentives paid to people who followed the policy
People Fined heavily for failing to enforce policy
Compulsory abortions and sterilisations
Contraceptive advice freely available
Encouraged late marriages
'Granny police' encouraged young people in their district to use contraceptives and avoid
unplanned pregnancies.
Female infanticide (killing of infants) and abandonment of baby girls mainly from rural areas.
Having a daughter was an economic disaster.
Relaxed rules in rural areas.…read more


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