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Case Studies

Causes and Impacts of flooding: South Asia 2007

South Asia floods most years because of:
Monsoon climate 80% of rain fell in 4 months
Low lying land ( Bangladesh 90% of land is less than 10m above sea level
Melting snow and ice for the Himalaya's.
The flooding…

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Human Factors:

No flood defences or flood warnings in place
little insurance
corrupt officials



Carlisle, Cumbria, 2005

River Eden runs through North Cumbria and reaches the sea near Carlisle

Large Drainage basin > higher discharge

Steep Sided Basin > runs quickly down the river

Streams drain into river > short…

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Polluted rivers.





Hard Engineering on the River Yangtze, China

Yangtze River flows through China, 6380km long and is the 3rd longest river in the world.

Seasonal flooding is common.
Rainy season June August
Often causes flooding > huge discharge

5 major floods 1931, 1935, 1949, 1954, 1998

1954 Covered 193000km2…

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1300 sites of cultural and historical interest flooded Temple of Zhang Fei
dams trap sediment > failure
destroys habitats
endangers species
increase flooding along tributaries

Levees negative effects:

1998 floods broke levees > devastating floods



Soft Engineering in Abingdon, England

Abingdon, South East England.
Built on flood plains of the…

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Reasons:

cliffs made of boulder clay which is easily eroded through corrosion
prone to slumping when boulder clay is wet
narrow beaches
o Flamborough Head stops sediment from North replenishing beaches
o Made of chalk which dissolves rather than making sand
o coastal defences human cause
powerful waves
o long…

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3 contributing factors to coastal flooding:

height of land above sea level
tidal range
incidence of storm surges

These factors all played an important role in the Storm Surge of February 1953

WHAT: Storm surge
WHEN: February 1953
WHERE: North Sea towards East Anglia, Britain and The Netherlands (lowlying land)…

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Property damage between $60 billion and $125billion
Loss of wetlands




Coastal Flooding South Asia Tsunami

WHAT: a tsunami
WHEN: 26.12.04
WHERE: Southern Asia Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and India

Caused by a submarine earthquake in the Indian Ocean

Earthquake reached 9.0 on the Richter scale making it one of the…

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11.4km of the 61km coastline is protected by hard engineering

Bridlington is protected by a 4.7 m sea wall and timber groynes
2 rock groynes and 500m revetments built at Mappleton in 1991
o £2million built to protect the village
Groynes and a sea wall at Withernsea and rock armour…

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More sustainable in the long term
more marshland larger habitats for wildlife
grazing land lost







Managing Population ­ Italy

low birth rates
falling fertility rates
ageing population

Population 58 million in 2005
will decline to 56 million by 2025 (even with net migration)

Tendency to stay at home with parents…

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Some parts of the country it was advice, some parts strictly enforced.

'Carrot and Stick':
Incentives paid to people who followed the policy
People Fined heavily for failing to enforce policy
Compulsory abortions and sterilisations

Contraceptive advice freely available
Encouraged late marriages

'Granny police' encouraged young people in their district…

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