Case Studies and Notes for water

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List of Case Studies Water
Continental Issues
Asia Pacific
o 1/3 lack access to safe drinking water
o ½ million infant deaths from diarrhoea
o bacterial waste is 10x higher than recommended
o overuse of water from agriculture as 90% of the withdrawals are for this
o aquifer depletion
o reduced water availability per capita
Africa
o 25 African countries will face water scarcity by 2025
o +200 mill lack access to safe water
Europe/central Asia
o Increased consumption and overexploitation of groundwater
o Groundwater pollution
Latin America and the Caribbean
o Groundwater pollution and depletion
o Poor levels of sanitation (2% of diarrhoea is treated)
o Economic scarcity of access to water
North America
o Aquifer depletion
o Increased irrigation
o Increased industrial usage
o Urban and pop growth
o Pollution from agricultural runoff
Places experiencing severe water shortages
Australia ­ the big dry
Increases in greenhouse gases and ozone in the the Earth's atmosphere are responsible for
suppressing rainfall.
Rainfall flow into Perth Reservoirs has already reduced by up to 75% over the past 50 years
Between 19901999 the average annual rainfall in Perth was 766mm in 2009 the figure has fallen to
656mm.
In the last 15 years the water from rain into the dams has dropped by 1/6th .
Perth uses almost 300 billion litres of drinking water a year and most of that is met through two
desalination plants and groundwater
Economic impact : Agricultural imports have reduced, could affect global food prices
Yemen
The capital Sana'a might run out of run by 2017 or within a decade. The basin around it is being
used ten times faster than it is being replenished
13 million Yemenis struggle to get clean water and so 14.7 million depend on humanitarian aid.
Bad management: instead of collecting and storing rainwater they just drill for limited groundwater
Population pressures 21 million in 2007, doubling every 17 years
1/50th the amount of water per person compared to the global average
food insecurity
60% of water is lost in urban areas due to leaks
70% of the pop live in rural areas and state run water companies don't provide water
14,000 Yemeni children die due to unsanitary water
political and social : tension and inequality between urban and rural areas as water from rural areas
has been taken to give to urban areas. 7080% of rural conflicts are due to water.

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Overextraction of groundwater may result in permanent compaction especially with aquifers with
a high clay content.
Infiltration to replenish the groundwater supplies is constricted by impermeable rock
South Africa
In Durban the dams are 20% lower than at the start of 2010.
5 million people lacked water access in 2008
polluted water: the Vaal River has become contaminated with faecal matter due to lack of
sanitation supplies. They had to remove 20 tonnes of dead fish from the river.…read more

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A third of the water for California comes from aquifers
there are seasonal shortages as 50% of rainfall happens between NovMar
the population has risen by almost 30 million in 65 years
It is projected to reach 4550 million by 2025
Most of the rainfall is in the north, but 3/4s of the demand for water comes from the south.…read more

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In 1944 the US and Mexico signed a treaty allowing Mexico to receive a guaranteed amount
of water, however, it didn't specify the quality of the water
Climate Change and the Colorado
o The future river flow is predicted to decrease by 520% in the next 40 years.
o River no long regularly reaches the sea
o If nothing is done about the rate of usage and natural factors such as climate change then
the river could dry up in the next 100 years.…read more

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Unemployment because of the collapse of the fishing industry due to the shrinking
sea. Ships laid useless on the seabed.
Local Residents
Health problems from the windblown salt and dust from the dried seabed.
Drinking water and remaining parts of the sea are polluted from weapons testing,
industrial projects, pesticide and fertiliser runoff.…read more

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Longest river in the world?
o Lies in Kenya, Eritrea, Congo, Burundi, Uganda Tanzania, Rwanda , Egypt, Sudan and
Ethiopia
o The population of these 11 countries within the Nile River basin region combined is 238
million
o Ancient Egyptian historical sites are located along the river ­ Cairo and Luxor
o Egypt is rich in agriculture
o 40 million people around half of Egypt's pop live in the Nile Delta Region
o The Aswan High Dam was built in 1970 to control flooding.…read more

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Jordan and the quantity fell by 60% and with only 2% of average rainfall they
had to declare a state of drought.
o Rate at which the water is being used is unsustainable ­ there is an over reliance on the
source and there is a lack of alternative
o Political relations are poor
Okavango Basin
o The Okavango Delta is in Botswana.
o Large inland delta where the river Okavango and Kalahari meet
o Produced by seasonal flooding.…read more

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Yangtze River is already very high with untreated wastewater and
agricultural runoff.…read more

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Developing countries may become reliant on food imports and may have hunger and
malnutrition
o In subSaharan Africa, grain imports will triple or worse.…read more

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MW of water generated electricity
o could save up to 50 million tonnes of coal every year
o supply water to a region that is responsible for 22% of China's GDP
o flood protection used to be a major problem.…read more

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