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MEDC Case study: Carlisle floods, Cumbria 2005

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Physical causes of flooding

Rainfall Intense rainfall caused soil compaction leading to increased surface run-off
(73% run-off)
Vegetation Mixed arable and grassland in valley meant that the ground was bare because
the flooding took place in winter months. This lead to decreased interception
and increased surface run-off. Rough hill pasture…

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Human causes of flooding

Urbanisation - Limited in upland regions, increasing spread of towns and villages in valley areas. This
results in the water not being able to move out of Carlisle because of the impermeable surfaces laid
(concrete/tar mac).


Short term impacts

Deaths of 3 people and 120 flood-related…

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Fire station £72,000+ £20,000 Loss of ICT, telecommunications, 3 vehicles, 1 ATV,
furniture/lockers at Carlisle fire station. Additional
£20,000 includes damages to vehicles and
equipment during emergency calls.


Flood management

Flood management strategies seek to reduce the effects of flooding on the human environment.
Approaches vary from hard engineering or…

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