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Physical causes of flooding
Rainfall Intense rainfall caused soil compaction leading to increased surface run-off
(73% run-off)
Vegetation Mixed arable and grassland in valley meant that the ground was bare because
the flooding took place in winter months. This lead to decreased interception
and increased surface run-off. Rough hill pasture on uplands so grass grazed by
sheep causing the vegetation to be short, also leading to decreased
interception.…read more

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Human causes of flooding
Urbanisation - Limited in upland regions, increasing spread of towns and villages in valley areas. This
results in the water not being able to move out of Carlisle because of the impermeable surfaces laid
(concrete/tar mac).…read more

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Fire station £72,000+ £20,000 Loss of ICT, telecommunications, 3 vehicles, 1 ATV,
furniture/lockers at Carlisle fire station. Additional
£20,000 includes damages to vehicles and
equipment during emergency calls.
Flood management
Flood management strategies seek to reduce the effects of flooding on the human environment.
Approaches vary from hard engineering or structural methods to soft engineering involving river
basin management. Councils can also opt for the `do nothing' approach which deals with issues when
they arise.…read more


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