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Carboxylic Acids and their Derivatives

Carboxylic Acids

Chemical Properties of Carboxylic Acids

They Behave as Acids
Acid ­ `Proton (H+) Donor'

a) Acid + Base Salt + water

Ethanoic acid + NaOH Sodium Ethanoate + Water

Benzoic acid + KOH Potassium Benzoate…

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c) Acid + Reactive metal Salt + H2(g)
CH3COOH + Na CH3COO­Na+ + H2(g)

­ Ethanol + Na Sodium ethoxide + ½H2(g)
CH3CH2OH + Na CH3CH2ONa + ½H2

d) Alcohols + Carboxylic Acids Ester + H2O

2Ethanol + Benzene-1,4-dioic Acid Diethyl

e) Carboxylic Aid + Chlorinating Agent Acyl(Acid)chlorides


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ii. Ethanoic Acid + SOCL2 + HCl + SO2

Very reactive and used to make other chemicals
o `good synthetic chemical'
o `Lachromatory' ­ Makes you cry

f) Carboxylic Acids can be reduced

Carboxylic Acids are difficult to reduce
o need a powerful reducing agent, LiAlH4 (non aq)


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b) Base catalysed hydrolysis of an ester
Propyl ethanoate + H2O
Propene + Ethanoic Acid

The carboxylic acid will react with the base to form a salt once the hydrolysis reaction is done

Acid + Base + Alcohol Salt + Alcohol

Acyl­Chlorides (Acid ­ Chlorides)

Chemical properties of Acyl­Chlorides


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3. Making an Ester

Methyl Propanoyl Chloride + TriChloroPhenol TriChlorophenyl MethylPropanoate

­ This is 100% conversion, there is no equilibrium state

4. Manking a Peptide

Ethanoyl Chloride + Ethylamine EthylEthanamide

Written By [email protected]


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