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Carboxylic Acids
· High melting/boiling points because of strong
hydrogen bonding
· Solubility in water decreases as chain length
increases because of H bonding between polar
water molecules and acid molecules
· Only partly dissociate ­ weak acid
· React with carbonates to make CO2…read more

Slide 3

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Making Esters
· Heat and reflux an alcohol with a carboxylic
acid
· Conc sulphuric acid (catalyst)
· First part of name comes from alcohol
· Second part of name comes from acid
- e.g. methyl ethanoate is made from methanol
and ethanoic acid…read more

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Uses of Esters
· Dipole and Van der Waals ­ lower
melting/boiling points
· Neutral
· Solvents of varnishes perfumes and glues
· Plasticizers…read more

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Hydrolysis of Esters
· Acid catalysed (heat and reflux with dilute
HCl)
· Produces a carboxylic acid and alcohol
· Base catalysed (heat and reflux with dilute
NaOH)
· Produces a salt of the acid e.g.(propanoate,
ethanoate) and alcohol…read more

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Fats, Oils (Triglycerides)
· Glycerol = Propane-1,2,3-triol
· Saponification (hydrolysed using NaOH)
· Products are glycerol and salt of long chain
carboxylic acids
· Make soap from that react the salt with HCl…read more

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