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Aldehydes and ketones
know that aldehydes are readily oxidised to carboxylic acids and that this forms the basis of a simple
chemical test to distinguish between aldehydes and ketones (e.g.…read more

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know that aldehydes can be reduced to primary alcohols and ketones to secondary alcohols using reducing agents
such as NaBH4.…read more

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as a further example of nucleophilic addition producing hydroxynitriles
3…read more

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Carboxylic acids and esters
Know that carboxylic acids are weak acids but will liberate CO2 from carbonates
They have the functional groups of the carbonyl
compounds and of alcohols. Having two groups on
the same carbon atom changes its properties; the OH
group in carboxylic acids is much more acidic than
in alcohols. They are named using the suffix oic, the
carbon atom of the functional group is counted as
part of the carbon chain.…read more

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Since the esterification reaction is
reversible, it follows that if an ester is
heated under reflux with
concentrated H2SO4, a carboxylic
acid and an alcohol will be formed in
know that esters can be hydrolysed
a reversible reaction:
R1-COOR2 + H2O == R1-COOH + R2OH
ethyl ethanoate + H2O == ethanoic acid + ethanol
5…read more

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Naturally occuring fats
and oils are in fact esters
with three ester groups.
Acid hydrolysis of fats and oils
The salts of the long-chain
fatty acids are known as
soaps. They are extremely
useful as they help oil and
water mix together.…read more

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Biodiesel is a mixture of methyl esters of long chain fatty acids.
It is made by hydrolysing naturally occurring fats or oils (as
described above) to make fatty acids.
The fatty acids can then be mixed with methanol in the
presence of a suitable catalyst to make a methyl ester. This is
an esterification reaction.…read more

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Acyl chlorides Acid anhydrides
Ethanoyl chloride
know the reactions of water, alcohols, ammonia and primary amines with acyl chlorides and acid anhydrides
The carbon atom is attached
to two electronegative atoms
and so is very +ve.…read more


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