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Carbohydrates are compounds of great importance in both the biological and
commercial world
They are used as a source of energy in all organisms and as structural materials in
membranes, cell walls and the exoskeletons of many arthropods
All carbohydrates contain the elements carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O)
with the hydrogen and oxygen being present in a 2 : 1 ratio
THE GENERAL FORMULA OF A CARBOHYDRATE IS:
Cx(H2O)y
EXAMPLES
The formula for glucose is C6H12O6
The formula for sucrose is C12H22O11…read more

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THE CLASSIFICATION OF CARBOHYDRATES
Carbohydrates are classified as either sugars or polysaccharides
CARBOHYDRATES
SUGARS POLYSACCHARIDES
MONOSACCHARIDES DISACCHARIDES STORAGE STRUCTURAL
Monosaccharides are Disaccharides are GLYCOGEN and CELLULOSE
single sugar units that double sugar units that STARCH are and CHITIN are
include: include: storage important
GLUCOSE SUCROSE carbohydrates; structural
FRUCTOSE MALTOSE animal cells store carbohydrates;
GALACTOSE LACTOSE glucose as cellulose forms
glycogen and the fabric of many
plant cells store cells walls and
glucose as starch chitin is a major
component of the
exoskeletons of
GLUCOSE many arthropods…read more

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MONOSACCHARIDES
Monosaccharides are single sugar units that form the building blocks for
the larger carbohydrates
There are many different monosaccharides; they vary according to the number
of carbon atoms that they possess and in the way the atoms are arranged
in the molecules
Glucose, the main source of energy for most organisms, is a hexose sugar with
six carbon atoms and the formula C6H12O6
Glucose exists in both straight chain and ring form with rings forming when
glucose is dissolved in water
CHAIN STRUCTURE RING STRUCTURE…read more

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GLUCOSE
This straight chain
representation of the glucose ALDEHYDE GROUP
molecule shows how the
carbon atoms are numbered
Glucose, in common with
many other hexose sugars The carbon atom
has an aldehyde group
as part of the structure of the carbonyl group
is referred to as the
The carbon atom that ANOMERIC CARBON
forms part of this aldehyde ATOM and, for glucose,
group is always carbon 1 this is carbon 1
The C = O carbonyl group
has reducing properties such
that all monosaccharides
are reducing sugars
The remainder of the molecule
is a series of bonded carbon
atoms with attached hydrogen
atoms and hydroxyl (OH) groups…read more

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GLUCOSE
In solution glucose exists in ring form
Glucose forms a
six-membered ring when
the hydroxyl group (OH)
on carbon 5 adds to the
aldehyde group on
carbon 1…read more

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