Carbohydrates - Mono/Disa/Poly/sacharides

Brief explanations of their groupings

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  • Created by: Solie
  • Created on: 25-09-12 11:01
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Three chemical groupings of carbohydrates...
1. Monosaccharides
Are the most basic units of biologically important carbohydrates.
Simplest form of sugar and are usually colourless, watersoluble, crystalline solids. Some
have a sweet taste.
Examples: glucose, fructose (levulose), galactose, xylose and ribose.
Monosaccharides are the building blocks of the other 3 chemical groupings of carbohydrates...
Formula: C6H12O6
2. Disaccharides
A disaccharide is the carbohydrate formed
when two monosaccharides undergo a
condensation reaction. Like
monosaccharide's, disaccharides form an
aqueous solution when dissolved in water.
Three common examples are: sucrose, lactose (milk sugar), and
3. Polysaccharides
Long carbohydrate molecules of repeated monomer units joined together by
glycosidic bonds.
Polysaccharides are often quite heterogeneous, containing slight modifications of
the repeating unit.
Depending on the structure, these macromolecules can have distinct properties
from their monosaccharide building blocks. They may be amorphous or even
insoluble in water.
Formula: Cx (H2O)y


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