Carbohydrates and Carbohydrate Digestion

Notes on AQA Biology BIOL1:

Carbohydrates & carbohydrate digestion



  • Monosaccharides
  • Disaccharides
  • Polysaccharides
  • Condensation & hydrolysis reaction
  • Making maltose
  • Beta glucose (C2)
  • Cellulose
  • Starch
  • Glycogen

Carbohydrate Digestion

  • Amylase
  • Carbohydrases produced in the epithelial system
  • Lactose intolerance
  • Lactose tolerance test

Biochemical tests:

  • Test for reducing sugars
  • Test for non-reducing sugars
  • Test for starch

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Carbohydrate Digestion
Trina Yau…read more

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Compounds containing the elements
3 main categories:
Single sugars
E.g. Glucose & fructose
Basic molecular units (monomers) of which carbohydrates
are made…read more

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Double sugars
E.g. Maltose & Sucrose & Lactose
1 molecule of a disaccharide is formed when 2
monosaccharides combine
Compounds formed from combinations of hundreds of
monosaccharide molecules
E.g. Starch, glycogen & cellulose…read more

Slide 4

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Molecular formula of monosaccharides:
Value of n Type of Molecular Examples
monosaccharide formula
3 Trioses C3H6O3 Glyceraldehyde
5 Pentoses C5H10O5 Ribose
6 Hexoses C6H12O6 Glucose,
Glucose & fructose have same formula as they consist
of same atoms in same proportions
But their structural formula show how atom
arrangement is different…read more

Slide 5

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Formed when 2 monosaccharide molecules combine
Reaction is a condensation
Reverse: hydrolysis breaks down maltose into its component alpha
glucose molecules
Formation of water molecule results in an `oxygen bridge' joining the 2
Link called glycosidic bond
In maltose, there is a 1,4 glycosidic bond
Different disaccharides are produced if
Combination of monosaccharide molecules are different
Links between carbon atoms in adjacent monosaccharides is different
Glucose + Glucose = Maltose
Glucose + Galactose = Lactose
Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose…read more

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Formed from many monosaccharide molecules
Joined by condensation reactions
Natural group of macromolecules (polymers)
Long chained carbohydrate molecules consisting of
many monosaccharide units
A molecule of polysaccharide is formed from
condensation reactions between many molecules of
monosaccharide…read more

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