Carbohydrates Notes

Complete set of notes covering carbohydrates. Includes monosaccharides, disacchardies, polysaccharides, starch, glycogen and cellulose. 

Covers the specification for the new OCR course.

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All carbohydrates contain the elements Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen.
The general formula of carbohydrates is CnH2nOn
A monosaccharide is a carbohydrate monomer.
Trioses, pentose and hexose sugars are monosaccharides.
Are soluble in water.
Are sweet tasting
Form crystals.
Examples include glucose, galactose and fructose.
Disaccharides are formed from the combination of two monosaccharide monomers.
To form a disaccharide, a condensation reaction occurs.
The condensation reaction is controlled by enzymes. A water molecule is removed.
The bond formed between the monosaccharides is called a glycosidic bond.
A glycosidic bond is a covalent bond, they are very strong.
To break down a disaccharide into two monosaccharides the addition of water is needed.
This reaction is called hydrolysis.
Glucose is a monosaccharide. There are two isomers of glucose.
Isomers have the same molecular formulas but have different atomic structures.
The isomers of glucose are alpha glucoseand beta glucose.
Alpha Beta
In alpha glucose the hydroxyl group at carbon1 is below the plane of the ring.
In beta glucose the hydroxyl group at carbon is above the plane of the ring.
The different structures lead to different properties.
Equations for making disaccharides:
Beta galactose + Alpha glucose -> lactose.
Alpha glucose + Alpha glucose -> Maltose
Alpha glucose + Fructose -> Sucrose.
Beta glucose + Beta glucose -> cellubiose.
Pentose Sugars:
Ribose and Deoxyribose are pentose sugars as they have 5 carbon atoms.

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Ribose has a hydroxyl group at carbon2 , whereas Deoxyribose has a hydrogen atom.
Polysaccharides are built up of many monosaccharides.
The most important polysaccharides are built up entirely of glucose.
They are insoluble.
They are NOT sugars.
Is a polysaccharide.
Is plant glucose storage.
It is insoluble; this means it does not disrupt the osmotic balance of the cell.
It is formed of two polymers of alpha glucose.
It is composed of amylose and
amylopectin.…read more

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It has 1-4 bonds and 1-6 bonds.
Is alpha glucose.
Is more branched than amylopectin. This results in the quicker release of energy as
enzymes can work at the ends of branches.
Molecules clump together to form granules. It is work compact than starch.
Is visible in the liver and muscle cells where it acts as an energy reserve.
It is found in fungi too.
Roles and structure of Starch and glucose:
Help to prevent too high concentration gradients of glucose in cells.…read more


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