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CARBOHYDRATES ­ MONOSACCHARIDES
- Carbohydrates are polymers, made up of monomers.
- The basic monomers are known as saccharides. A single monomer is a
monosaccharide and a double is a disaccharide.
- Monosaccharieds are sweet soluble substances with the general formula (CHO)n
where n can be any number from 3 ­ 7…read more

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GLUCOSE
- An example of a monosaccharide is glucose, which is a hexase sugar ­
C6H12O6.…read more

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TEST FOR REDUCING SUGARS
- All monosaccharide's and some disaccharides are reducing sugars.
- Reduction is a chemical reaction involving the gain of electrons. A reducing
sugar is therefore a sugar which can donate electrons or reduce another
sugar.
- The test for reducing sugars is the Benedict's test:
- 1. Add 2 cm3 of the food sample being tested to a test tube.
- 2. Add an equal volume of Benedict's reagent.
- 3. Heat the mixture in a gently boiling water bath for 5 mins.
- 4. If the mixture turns brick red then it is a reducing sugar.
The test is semi quantitative because it is based on differences in colour.…read more

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DISACCHARIDES
Glucose and Glucose makes maltose.
Glucose and fructose makes sucrose.
Glucose and Galactose make lactose.
The molecules join in a condensation reaction. A molecule of water is removed
and the bond formed is a glycosidic bond.…read more

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TEST FOR REDUCING SUGARS
Some disaccharides such as sucrose are non-reducing sugars.
To test them they must first be broken down into the monosaccharide's, this is
done by adding hydrochloric acid and heating in a boiling water bath.
Then Hydrogen carbonate solution is added to neutralise it.
Then it can be tested with Benedicts reagent- the reducing sugar test.…read more

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