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Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates contain 3 elements:
Carbon (C)
Hydrogen (H)
Oxygen (O)
Carbohydrates are found in one of three forms:
Monosaccharides
Disaccharides (both sugars)
Polysaccharides
General formula:

(CH2O)n where n is a number between 3 and 9. They are classified according to the number
of carbon atoms. The monosaccharides you will…

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Carbohydrates

The reaction, which is called a condensation reaction, involves the loss of water (H2O) and
the formation of an 1,4-glycosidic bond. Depending on the monosaccharides used, this can
be an -1,4-glycosidic bond or a -1,4-glycosidic bond.




The reverse of this reaction, the formation
of two monosaccharides from one
disaccharide,…

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Carbohydrates

Polysaccharides




Functions of carbohydrates
Substrate for respiration (glucose is essential for cardiac tissues).
Intermediate in respiration (e.g. glyceraldehydes).
Energy stores (e.g. starch, glycogen).
Structural (e.g. cellulose, chitin in arthropod exoskeletons and fungal walls).
Transport (e.g. sucrose is transported in the phloem of a plant).
Recognition of molecules outside a…

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