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Carbohydrate
Makes up around 10% of organic matter within a cell.
Functions of carbohydrates are:
Energy source (released for glucose during respiration
Energy store (starch)
Structure (cellulose)
Some carbs form large molecules such as glycolipids
Contain the elements C,H,O.
Simplest carbs are monosaccharide, these are monomers of
carbohydrates.
They all have similar properties such as they're soluble in water, sweet
tasting, forms crystals. Monosaccharide are grouped according to the
number of carbon atoms they have between 3 and 6 they're called:
3 carbon is called triose
5 carbon are called pentose
6 carbon are called hexose
Most common monosaccharide are hexose (glucose). Glucose =
C6H12O6…read more

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Alpha glucose and beta Glucose
Glucose is drawn in chain or ring structures. When the ring
structure is formed it have so in two different ways, they differ at
the C1 with alpha glucose the H is found above the C1 whereas
with beta its found below it.
Because the structure is different this leads to different properties
between them.…read more

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Condensation reaction and hydrolysis
Two monosaccharide molecules join together in a condensation
reaction, this forms a disaccharide molecule. By this happening
this forms a covalent bond called a glycosidic bond and I water
molecule is them eliminated.
Hydrolysis is the opposite reaction is breaks down the molecule
into separate ones rather them forms. This is done by adding a
water molecule to break the glycosidic bond.…read more

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Amylose, Amylopectin
Amylose is a straight chained a-glucose molecule, it has a coiled
structure and is found in starch in plants. Its good for storage
because its compact and can fit more into small places.
Amylopectin is a long branched chain of a glucose. The side
branches allow the enzymes to break down the molecule to get
glycosidic bonds easily. Meaning glucose can be released quickly.…read more

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Cellulose
They are large molecules made of many B glucose molecules
joined by condensation reaction. They are insoluble and very
strong.
They are arrange in a specific way in which to form plant cell walls,
this is because the glucose monomer contains so many OH
groups so many H bonds can form between them.
Around 60-70 cellulose molecules cross link by H bonds in order to
form a microfibril. These have great mechanical strength.
The arrangement of macrofibrils (formed by microfibril) allows
water move through and along the cell walls easily,…read more

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