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2.2 Carbohydrates Monosaccharide's
1.What is a carbohydrate?
2. Give 5 points that explain the following statement "Life is based on a small number of chemical elements,"
and explain how large molecules like carbohydrates are constructed.
3. What is a monomer?
4. What is a polymer?
5. What is a saccharide?
6. What is the simplified diagram of alpha glucose?
7. What is the test for reducing sugars?
8. what is the structural formula for a monosaccharide?
9. Why does Benedicts reagent turn red?
2.3 Carbohydrates disaccharides and polysaccharides
1. 3 examples of glucose disaccharides
2. Explain what condensation reactions are, glycosidic bonds, and hydrolysis of it draw a diagram!
3. What is the test for non-reducing sugars.
4. What is a polysaccharide and name 2 with their properties.
5. What is the test for starch?
6. How are alpha-glucose molecules linked to form starch?
2.4 Carbohydrate digestion
1. Why does it take more then 1 enzyme to break down a large molecule?
2. Why are enzymes produced in different parts of the digestive system for starch digestion.
3. Which 3 areas does the starch digestion take place in mainly?
4. What is produced at each stage of starch digestion.
5. Talk through the cycle of starch digestion.
6. What is the final product of starch digestion in the gut?
7. Name 3 enzymes produced by the epithelium of the small intestine.
8. Describe how sucrose is digested.
9. Describe the digestion of lactose.
10. Why do babies produce a large amount of lactase?
11. Why is the amount of lactase we produce greatly reduced by adulthood?
12. What is lactose intolerance?
13. What problems can lactose intolerance induce?
14. How are babies that are lactase intolerant treated?
Within this unit, carbohydrates should be studied in the context of the following: Biological molecules such as
carbohydrates and proteins are often polymers and are based on a small number of chemical elements.
· starch, the role of salivary and pancreatic amylases and of maltase located in the intestinal epithelium
· disaccharides, sucrase and lactase.
Monosaccharides are the basic molecular units (monomers) of which carbohydrates are composed.
The structure of a-glucose as a-glucoseand the linking of a-glucose by glycosidic bonds formed by
condensation to form maltose and starch.
Sucrose is a disaccharide formed by condensation of glucose and fructose.
Lactose is a disaccharide formed by condensation of glucose and galactose.
Biochemical tests using Benedict's reagent for reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars. Iodine/potassium
iodide solution for starch.
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1. Carbo cabon, hydro water. Carbon molecules combined with water.
2. C readily bonds with other C atoms
therefore a variety of different size carbon chains can be formed backbone of structures
because c is so versatile in this way the variety of lide comes from this
carbon containing molecules are therefore known as organic
in living organisms there are relatively few other atoms that readily attach to carbon
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Sucrose passes through the stomach to the small intestine, where the epithelial cells produce the enzyme
sucrase. Sucrase breaks down the single glycosidic bond between glucose and fructose.
9. Digested in the small intestine, producing lactase.
10. Babies produce a large amount of lactase because: Lactase is the enzyme which breaks down lactose (the
natural sugar in milk) and because babies consume a lot of milk.
11. As we consume less and less milk, our lactase production naturally diminishes.