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Organic Chemistry
· Organic means living
· Hydrocarbons contain hydrogen and carbon
atoms
· Organic Chemistry is the study of carbon
chemicals that are natural and artificial.
· The bonding in hydrocarbons is covalent so
bonding between molecules is weak.
· The structure is molecular.…read more

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Alkanes CnH2n+2
· The bond between atoms are all single.
· The bonds between atoms are strong but the
bonds between molecules are weak.
CARB CARB
ON ON
UNREACTIVE BONDS
CARB HYDR
ON OGEN…read more

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Properties
1. Good fuels: - lots of heat energy made
- COMPLETE COMBUSTION H2O + CO2
- Short chains are best (cleaner + less energy to break)
2. Do not dissolve or react with water or reactants dissolved in water: - no
energy to break the unreactive C-C or C-H bonds.
3. Oily
4. CRACKING produces short chains and an alkene from long chain alkanes: -
Long chain HC (Thermal decomposition) Shorter chain HC+ Alkene
5. React with Bromine and Chlorine (alkane + halogen):
- chain reaction as FREE RADICALS are made
- continued chlorofluorocarbons (refrigerants) + coolants/solvents
- SUSTITUTION REACTION as each H atom in hydrocarbon is replaced by
the halogen…read more

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Examples:
H
H C H
Methane CH4
H
H H
Ethane C2H6
H C C H
H H…read more

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Alkenes CnH2n
· A by-product of CRACKING an Alkane
· Used for making polymers
· C=C is more reactive than C-C
· The molecule is unsaturated and the double
bonds allow addition polymerisation.
H H
Ethene C2H4
C C
H H…read more

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