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Methane, Ethane and Propane are gasses at room temperature.
Pentane and above are liquid at room temperature
Amount of C's increase as you go down.…read more

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Chemical Properties
All alcohols burn.
Methanol and ethanol are both highly fl ammable and are used as fuels.
Methanol can burn with an invisible fl ame, making it dangerous to use in the laboratory.
Reactions between alcohols and alkali metals are very similar to the reactions between water and
sodium. The reaction is, however, less violent. Sodium reacts with ethanol to form sodium
ethoxide. Like sodium hydroxide, it is an ionic compound and a solid at room temperature.…read more

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Carboxylic acids have the functional group COOH
Reacts like other acids
o Reacts with metals to salt and hydrogen
o With Alkalis to form salt and water
o With Carbonates to give salt, water and carbon dioxide
Ethanol + Oxygen Ethanoic acid + water
Esters have function group COO-
Formed from alcohol and carboxylic acid ­ esterification reaction
o Alcohol + carboxylic acid ester + water
Often used in flavourings and perfumes
Found in solvents in adhesives and plasticizers because the contain hydrocarbon…read more

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Preparation of Esters
An alcohol can react with a carboxylic acid to make esters.
The reaction happens on warming the alcohol and the acid in the presence of a little sulfuric acid to
act as a catalyst.
Reactions of esters do not go to completion.…read more

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They transfer heat energy to the surroundings
o i.e.…read more

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Can be shown on an energy level diagram
Breaking a chemical bond requires a lot of energy ­ endothermic process
o More energy is required to break old bonds than is released when the new bonds are
When a new chemical bond is formed, energy is given out ­ exothermic process
o More energy is released when the new bonds are formed than is needed to break the old
1) Hydrogen is burned in oxygen…read more

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1) The energy used to break bond is... (Hydrogen + Oxygen)
2 X H-H + O=O = (2 X 436) + 496
= 1368kJ
2) The energy used t make bonds is...…read more

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Both the forward and the backward reactions are still occurring, but at the same rate
There is no overall change in concentration of the substances
Dynamic equilibrium may be used to explain the difference between a strong acid and a weak acid
Strong Acids
Hydrochloric acid, nitric acid and sulfuric acid are all examples of strong acids.…read more

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The chromatogram can be compared to standard chromatogram (standard reference materials) of
known substances to identify the different chemicals
The solvent that is used to move the solution is called the mobile phase
A range of aqueous and non-aqueous solvents may be used
Aqueous solvents are water based, whereas non-aqueous solvents are made from organic liquids
The medium that it moves through is called the stationary phase
The paper is the stationary phase
A chromatogram is formed when the chemicals come out of solution and…read more


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