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C7 revision notes Alkanes, alcohols, carboxylic acids and esters

Alkanes

Alkanes are a family of hydrocarbons
They are made up of chains of carbon atoms surrounded by hydrogen atoms
They only contain a single covalent bond.
The alkane family contains molecules that look similar however they have
different length chains…

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Alcohols have an OH functional group
The general formula for alcohol is CnH2n+1OH
The first 2 alcohols are ethanol (C2H5OH) and methanol (CH3OH)
All alcohols have similar properties because of the OH group.
The diagram below shows the structure of methanol with the OH group




Alcohols and water

Alcohols are…

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Similarities with other acids

They react with alkalis, carbonates and reactive metals much like any other
acid.
The salts formed by carboxylic acids end in anoate. For example methanoic
acid forms methanoate.
They react with metals to give a salt and hydrogen

e.g ethanoic acid + magnesium ---> magnesium ethanoate…

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Esters have the functional group COO
They are formed by a reaction between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid.
It's called an esterification reaction
The word equation for this is

Alcohol + carboxylic acid ester + water




The formula for making an ester is already balanced as the oh moves…

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