C5 Chemicals in the Natural Environment Revision Checklist

The learning objectives for the topic to help see what you do and dont know

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  • Created on: 15-04-10 14:48
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C5 Chemicals of the natural environment ­ checklist
What types of chemicals make up the atmosphere and
What types of chemicals make up the atmosphere?
Know that dry air consists of the elements oxygen, nitrogen
and argon and compounds such as carbon dioxide.
2. Know the formulae O2, N2, CO2, Ar, CO, H2O, NO, NO2, SO2
Know that most nonmetal elements (e.g.O2) and compounds
of nonmetal elements (e.g. CO2) are molecular.
Know that molecular elements (e.g. O2) and compounds (e.g.
CO2) tend to have low melting and boiling points.
Use data to see similarities in melting and boiling points of
molecular elements and compounds.
Understand that the elements and compounds in the air are
6. gases because they exist as small molecules with weak forces
of attraction between them.
Understand that pure molecular compounds do not conduct
electricity because the molecules are not charged (+ or )
Know that a covalent bond is a pair of electrons shared
between two atoms.
Understand that the bonding within molecules is strong.
Covalent bonding arises from the electrostatic attraction
between the nuclei of the atoms and the electrons shared
between them. H.
Be able to translate between different representations of
molecules (for elements that are gases at 20ºC and simple
10. molecular compounds), including: molecular formulae 2D
diagrams with covalent bonds represented by lines 3D
What types of chemicals make up the hydrosphere?
Know that the Earth's hydrosphere (oceans) consist mainly of
water with some dissolved compounds.
Use data to show that solid ionic compounds have relatively
high melting and boiling points.
Know that sea water in the hydrosphere is `salty' because it
contains dissolved ionic compounds called salts.
Understand that solid ionic compounds form crystals because
the ions are arranged in a regular way. Met in C4.

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Understand that ions in a crystal are held together by the
15. attraction between opposite charges (+ and): this is ionic
bonding. Met in C4.
Understand the physical properties of ionic compounds (high
melting and boiling points and electrical conductors in solution
16. or molten) are because of their giant, 3D structures held
together strongly by the attraction between positively and
negatively charged ions (ionic bonding). Met in C4.
Describe what happens to the ions when an ionic crystal
dissolves in water.…read more

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Know that silicon dioxide is found as quartz in granite, and is
the main constituent of sandstone.
29. Know that diamond consists of only one element, carbon.
Know the properties of diamond (limited to hardness, melting
point and conductivity).
Explain the properties of diamond in terms of a giant structure
of atoms held together by strong covalent bonding.
C5.3 Which chemicals make up the biosphere?
Understand that living things are mainly made up from
compounds containing the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
32.…read more

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Extraction of metals using electrolysis.
Understand that some more reactive metals are extracted by
43. electrolysis because their oxide would not be reduced by
carbon (e.g. aluminium, sodium)
Describe electrolysis as the decomposition of an electrolyte
with an electric current
Understand that electrolytes are solutions of ionic compounds
or molten ionic compounds
46. Describe what happens to the ions when an ionic crystal melts
Understand why positive metal ions go to the negative
47.…read more

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Understand that in a metal crystal there are positively charged
59. ions held closely together by a sea of electrons that are free to
move. H.
Use data to answer questions about the impact on the
60.…read more


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