C4 Revision With Grades

All to know with C4 Revision List! 

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Neel
  • Created on: 22-05-11 12:29
Preview of C4 Revision With Grades

First 660 words of the document:

Grade Content Book Ref
C
4
a:
A
ci
ds
&
B
as
es
1 D, C Universal indicator
can
be
used
to
est
imat
e t
he
pH of
a
sol
uti
on
P 112 ­ The pH
When an acid (
R ED)
is
n eut
ral
ised by
a base /
al
kali
,
the
pH increases unt
il pH 7
(GRE EN).scale
I
f
mo r
e base
/
alkal
i
is adde d,
t
he
pH
incr
eases f
urther
(BLUE )
,
thi
s depends on
the
amo unt
of
base
/ al
kali
added.
When a base /
alkal
i
is
neutral
ised
by an aci
d,
the
pH
decreases unti
l
pH
7. If
mo r
e aci
d i
s
added,
t
h e
p H decr
ea s es
fur
ther,
thi
s depends
o n
the
amo unt
of
a ci
d added
P 112
Neutralisation
2 D,C An
a l
ka l
i i
s a sol
u ble
base (
base disso lved i
n
w at
er)
.
Neutralisation:
Whe n a neu t
ral
is at
ion
react
ion
takes place:
acid + base salt + water
3 D, C On neutrali
s at
ion
the f
oll
owing
acids f
o rm th ei
r corr
e spo n d i
ng
salts: P 113 ­ More
sul
phur
ic
aci
d ­sulphates
about bases
ni
tr
ic
aci
d ­nitrates
hydrochlori
c aci
d ­ chlorides
So dium hydroxi
de
+
sulphuri
c ac i
d
s od iu m sulph at
e + w ater
2NaO H
+
H2SO 4
N a2SO 4
+
2
H 2O
Po tassi
um h ydr
oxide
+
hydoch l
oric
ac i
d potassium ch l
o ri
de
+
w at
e
r
2 KO H
+
2H C l
2 K Cl
+
H O
Co pp er
oxide
+
n i
tr
ic
a ci
d
c op pe r n i
trate
+
water
2
CuO
+
2H NO 3
C u (
N O 3)2
+
H 2O
+
4 B A* Al
l acl
ds cont
ain hydr
og en i
on s
(H ),
all
alka l
is c on tai
n hydro xi
d e i
o ns (OH ),
theref
ore
neut
ral
isat
ion P 112
i
s:
H+ + OH H2O
5 D,C Metal oxides and metal hydroxides ne ut
ra li
s e acids
be caus e they
a r e
bases. P 113
Carbonates neutral
ise
ac i
ds to
give wate r
, a
s a lt
and ca r
bon dioxide.
Metal carbonate + acid Salt + Water + Carbon dioxide
C
4
b:
R
1

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

D,C Fer
ti
li
sersa
re solids and
must
bed
i
ssol
vedi
nw
at
er
tob
et
akeni
nby
root
s
i
nsol
uti
on.
Fer
ti
li
ser
s P 120 ­
i
ncrease
crop
yiel
d .…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Co
st
s
1 D,C Ammonia
is
used
to
make fertilizer.
The
use of
ammo ni
a t
o pr
oduce
fer
ti
li
zer
has
made
it
possi
ble P 123
t
o dr
amat
ical
ly
incr
ease
the qu an ti
ty
and qual
it
y of
f
ood
produced
acr
oss t
he wor
ld
3
1 D,C Ammo ni
ai
su
s edt
oma
k ef
ert
il
i
se r
f
rom hydrogen
& nitrogen.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

D,C Many
det
ergent
s ar
e made
by
the
neutralization
of
aci
ds
w i
th
alkal
i
s P 127, 129
8
Usi
ng low temperature w ashes
saves
energy.
C er
tai
n cl
othes
can be
w ashed
usi
ng l
ow t
emperatur
es e.
g.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

P 132 ­ 133 ­
Extracting
chemicals
2 BA* Economi
c consi
der
ati
ons
det
ermi
ne
the
devel
opment
of
new dr
ugs
:
6 r
esear
ch
and
devel
opment
t
ime
and
labour
cost
s
t
ime
requi
red
to
meet
l
egal
r
equi
rement
s i
ncl
udi
ng
ti
mescal
e f
or
test
ing
and
human
tr
ial
s
ant
ici
pat
ed
demand
for
new pr
oduc
t
length
of
pay
back
ti
me
for
i…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

D,C Wat
er
pur
if
icat
ion i
ncl
udes
1)
filtration,
2)
sedimentation a nd
3)chlorination
P 140 ­ Water
9 purification
P 141 ­
Distilling sea
water
4 B A* Water purification:
0 filtration
­ wi
re
mesh
fi
lt
ers
out
smal
l
sedi
ment
s,
gravel
s and
other
sol
id
bit
s
sedimentation
all
ows
lar
ge
heavi
er
par
ti
cl
es
to
set
tl
e at
t
he
bot
tom
chlorination ­ dest
ro y
bact
eri
a…read more

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Science resources:

See all Science resources »See all resources »