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C4 Chemical Patterns
Elements are arranged in order of proton number (atomic number). This is the
number of positive protons in each atom.
In the Periodic Table each element is placed beneath those with similar properties. It
helps to predict how they will behave in different situations.

A group is…

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Physical Properties of the Alkali Metals:

Reaction in air Lithium, sodium and potassium are all soft metals. The freshly
cut surface is a shiny, silver colour, but tarnishes quickly to a dull grey as the
metal reacts with oxygen and water in the air.
They are stored in oil to…

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Lithium Lithium floats when added to water. It fizzes steadily and becomes smaller,
until it eventually disappears.
Sodium When sodium is added to water, the sodium melts to form a ball that
moves around on the surface. It fizzes rapidly, and the hydrogen produced may burn
with an orange flame…

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The Halogens are all nonmetals with coloured vapours:

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Poisonous yellow At room
Fluorine Very Reactive
gas temperature

Poisonous dense At room
Chlorine Fairly Reactive
green gas temperature

Poisonous volatile At room
orange liquid temperature

Grey crystalline At room
solid temperature

Particle Mass Charge
Proton 1 +1
Neutron 1 0
Electron Negligible 1

Element Symbol

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When the atoms of some metals are heated, they give off coloured light. The colour
given off by each metal is different, and can be used to identify them.

All atoms give off light when heated.
Each element gives a characteristic line spectrum
This is Spectroscopy

Electron Shells:

Only a…


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