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Atoms
Nucleus contains protons
and neutrons
Most of the atoms mass is
in the nucleus
It has a positive charge
Electrons move in shells
around the nucleus
Proton heavy positive
They are negatively
charged Neutron heavy neutral
They have almost no Electron light negative
mass…read more

Slide 3

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Ions
In atoms, the number of electrons = the number of
protons
Ions are atoms where either a proton or electron has
been removed so it has either a positive or negative
charge…read more

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Flame tests and line spectrums
Spectroscopy Flame tests
When heated electrons in the atom Some elements emit colours when
produce light heated
If you have a spectroscope, you can This can help to identify elements
see this light as coloured lines To do a flame test, add some of the
Different elements show different substance to a blue Bunsen burner
colours and combinations of lines flame and record the colour
because they have different produced
electron arrangements
Lithium Red flame
Sodium Orange flame
Potassium Purple flame…read more

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History of the periodic table
Dobereiner organised elements in to traids in the 1800's
He arranged them in order of relative atomic mass and put them in to
groups of three
The middle element of each traid's atomic mass was close to the average of
the other two elements atomic masses
Newlands arranged the elements in to groups of 8 called octaves
He left no gaps for undiscovered elements so his work was ignored
Mendeleev arranged the elements in order of atomic mass but also left gaps
for undiscovered elements
Elements in vertical groups had similar properties
The gaps predicted the properties of undiscovered elements…read more

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Metals are on the left and non- The Modern Periodic table
metals are on the right
Vertical columns are called
groups and elements in groups
have similar properties
The group number is the same
as the electrons on the outer
shell of all the elements in that
group, e.g: calcium is in group
2 and therefore has 2 electrons
on its outer shell
Horizontal rows are called
periods. Each period
represents a full shell of
electrons, e.g: Bismuth is in
row 6 and therefore has 6 full
electron shells
The proton number tells you
how many protons the element
has (and also how many
electrons because no. of
protons = no. of electrons)
Relative
atomic 16 symbol
The relative atomic mass tells
O
you the total number of mass
protons and neutrons in the
nucleus
Proton
You can work out the number
number 8
of neutrons by doing : relative
atomic mass ­ proton number…read more

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