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Chemistry Revision ­ C4, C5, C6
C4 ­ Chemical Patterns
Atoms:
The nucleus is made of protons (positive) and neutron (negative).
o It makes up the whole mass displayed on the periodic table.
o But size wise it's a small part of the atom.
The electrons move around the nucleus.…

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o But in group 7 it decreases as you go down the group.
o Each new period (row) represents another full shell of electrons.

Electron Shells:

Electron shell rules:
o Electrons occupy shells (sometimes called energy levels).
o Lowest energy levels fill first.
o 1st shell: 2 2nd shell: 8…

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o Chlorine merks bacteria, like other halogens, so it's used in swimming pools.
o As you go down the halogens, they get less reactive, higher melting point and higher
boiling point.
Non-metals with coloured vapours.
o Fluorine is a very reactive, poisonous yellow gas at room temperature.
o Chlorine is…

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o Oxidising
o Highly flammable
o Toxic
o Harmful
o Irritant
o Corrosive
Alkali metals are really reactive and combust spontaneously.
o If they meet water vapour the can react ;/
o Never touch with bare hands.
o If you use them, keep everything dry.
Halogen are harmful, chlorine and…

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Covalent Bonding:

Covalent bonds share electrons.
o This way both atoms feel they have a full outer shell.
o The atoms bond due to electrostatic attraction between the positive nuclei and the
negative electrons shared between them.
Hydrogen, H
o Hydrogen need 1 more electron, so 2 H's share their…

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Metals from Minerals:

Ores contain enough metal to make extraction worthwhile.
o Rocks are made or minerals, which are solid elements and compounds.
o Metal ores are rocks that contain various amounts of minerals from which metals can
be extracted.
More reactive elements are hard to get.
o Most elements…

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Ores are finite resources.
o They'll run out.
o Good because useful production, money, jobs so transport and health services can
be improved.
o But it uses loads on energy, scars in landscape, destroys habitats also noise, dust and
pollution are caused by the traffic increase.
o Deep mines can…

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o An acid is a substance with pH below 7, acidic compounds from aqueous hydrogen
ions H.
o An alkali has a pH more than 7 and it makes aqueous hydroxide ions OH in water.
o When they react they make salt and water. The products are neutral, so its…

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Correct size and strength of apparatus and temperature of reaction and
whether you need to use a catalyst.
o Isolating the product:
After the reaction you might need to separate a mixture, evaporation,
filtration, drying ect.
o Purification:
As you isolate the product you're helping to purify it, crystallisation can…

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Titrations:

Titrations are carried out using a burette.
o A know volume of alkali in a flask with a few drops of indicator.
o Then add acid drop by drop until it changes colour.
o It's then neutralised.
Solids are weighed out into a titration flask.
o The add a…

Comments

Salsabiil Therese

This is not the new syllabus

Sasha Dean

This is brilliant.

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