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Chemistry Revision ­ C4, C5, C6
C4 ­ Chemical Patterns
The nucleus is made of protons (positive) and neutron (negative).
o It makes up the whole mass displayed on the periodic table.
o But size wise it's a small part of the atom.
The electrons move around the nucleus.…

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o But in group 7 it decreases as you go down the group.
o Each new period (row) represents another full shell of electrons.

Electron Shells:

Electron shell rules:
o Electrons occupy shells (sometimes called energy levels).
o Lowest energy levels fill first.
o 1st shell: 2 2nd shell: 8…

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o Chlorine merks bacteria, like other halogens, so it's used in swimming pools.
o As you go down the halogens, they get less reactive, higher melting point and higher
boiling point.
Non-metals with coloured vapours.
o Fluorine is a very reactive, poisonous yellow gas at room temperature.
o Chlorine is…

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o Oxidising
o Highly flammable
o Toxic
o Harmful
o Irritant
o Corrosive
Alkali metals are really reactive and combust spontaneously.
o If they meet water vapour the can react ;/
o Never touch with bare hands.
o If you use them, keep everything dry.
Halogen are harmful, chlorine and…

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Covalent Bonding:

Covalent bonds share electrons.
o This way both atoms feel they have a full outer shell.
o The atoms bond due to electrostatic attraction between the positive nuclei and the
negative electrons shared between them.
Hydrogen, H
o Hydrogen need 1 more electron, so 2 H's share their…

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Metals from Minerals:

Ores contain enough metal to make extraction worthwhile.
o Rocks are made or minerals, which are solid elements and compounds.
o Metal ores are rocks that contain various amounts of minerals from which metals can
be extracted.
More reactive elements are hard to get.
o Most elements…

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Ores are finite resources.
o They'll run out.
o Good because useful production, money, jobs so transport and health services can
be improved.
o But it uses loads on energy, scars in landscape, destroys habitats also noise, dust and
pollution are caused by the traffic increase.
o Deep mines can…

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o An acid is a substance with pH below 7, acidic compounds from aqueous hydrogen
ions H.
o An alkali has a pH more than 7 and it makes aqueous hydroxide ions OH in water.
o When they react they make salt and water. The products are neutral, so its…

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Correct size and strength of apparatus and temperature of reaction and
whether you need to use a catalyst.
o Isolating the product:
After the reaction you might need to separate a mixture, evaporation,
filtration, drying ect.
o Purification:
As you isolate the product you're helping to purify it, crystallisation can…

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Titrations are carried out using a burette.
o A know volume of alkali in a flask with a few drops of indicator.
o Then add acid drop by drop until it changes colour.
o It's then neutralised.
Solids are weighed out into a titration flask.
o The add a…


Salsabiil Therese


This is not the new syllabus

Sasha Dean


This is brilliant.

Captain Hulk


from the UK and in yr 10. Very useful!



neutrons are neutral though x



A bit outdated but still helpful!

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