C3: Water

Hey, here is a document mainly for students taking AQA Triple Science. It has information from the C3 (chemistry) section on drinking water, soft water, hard water and the water cycle. I hope this helps you to revise! Please rate and comment on how to improve :D

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  • Created on: 07-04-10 17:36
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C3: Drinking Water
The water we drink is not pure water because it contains dissolved
It should be safe to drink, which means it does not contain
anything that could cause us harm.
Some of the dissolved substances are beneficial to our health but
some cause hard water.
The Water Cycle
Water in rivers, lakes and the oceans is evaporated by the heat of
the Sun.
This forms water vapour that rises in the atmosphere and cools so
that it condenses to form clouds.
The water droplets in the clouds join together to produce rain.
This is known as the water cycle.
Many substances dissolve in water.
Most ionic compounds are soluble in water.
Some molecular substances are soluble but many covalent
compounds are insoluble in water.

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The solubility of a solute in water, or any other solvent, is usually
given in grams of solute per 100 grams of water (or solvent) at
that temperature.
The solubility of most solutes that are solids increases as the
temperature increases.
A saturated solution is one in which no more solute will dissolve at
that temperature.
When a hot saturated solution cools, some of the solute will
separate from the solution.
Solubility of Gases
Many gases are soluble in water.…read more

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Hard water reacts with soap to form scum and so more soap is
needed to form lather.
Hard water contains dissolved compounds, usually of calcium or
The compounds are dissolved when water comes into contact
with rocks.
Using hard water can increase costs because more soap is
When hard water is heated it can produce scale that reduces the
efficiency of heating systems and kettles.
Hard water has some benefits because calcium compounds are
good for health.…read more

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Pure water can be produced by distillation.…read more


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